2018_19届高中英语Unit4LawandorderPeriodTwoWordPowerGrammarandUsage课件牛津译林版_图文

高中英语·选修10·译林版
Period Two Word Power & Grammar and Usage

Ⅰ.Words: 1._p_e_n_-_fr_ie_n_d__n.笔友 2._r_e_q_u_es_t_vt. & n.要求,请求 Ⅱ.Phrases: 1._s_o_.._.a_s__to__如此……以便于…… 2._a_t_a_l_l_t_i_m_e_s_无论何时,一直 3._b_e__g_u_il_ty__o_f_犯……罪

一、正式英语与非正式英语 英语有不同的类型,应用不同类型的英语要求取决于不
同的情形。最重要的区别是英语的书面语和口语之分,而书 面语和口语中又有正式语和非正式语之分。
1.正式语一般用于以下情况: 书面语中的论文、报告、申请信等。口语中的演讲、与 陌生人谈话等。 2.非正式语一般用于下列情况: 书面语中包括写给家人及朋友的信件、电子邮件、短信 等。口语中包括与熟人谈话等。

3.正式英语中常用复杂的句型结构也包括被动语态和从 句等。正式语中还多用抽象名词。如:
So clever was he a student that he was able to work out all the difficult problems.
他如此聪明以至于能解答所有困难的题目。 What should be done today has been done. 今天该做的都做完了。 4.非正式英语中主要用简单句、主动结构、通俗语以及 缩写语等。如:

He doesn't like the first.He likes the third. 他不喜欢第一个,喜欢第三个。 Have an aim in life,or your energies will all be wasted. 生活中要有目标,要不然你的精力就白白浪费。

二、正式语和非正式语的表达形式 1.状语
(1)时间,原因和条件状语可以用非谓语动词的形式,也可 以用状语从句的形式,一般地说,非谓语动词形式比状语 从句形式正式。 _B_e_i_n_g_(As he was)a farmer,he had to get up early. _W__ea_t_h_e_r__p_e_r_m__it_ti_n_g_(If weather permits),we shall go. (2)方式和程度状语可用介词短语,也可以用副词表示,一 般说,介词短语比副词正式。
He spoke _in__a__c_o_n_f_i_d_e_n_t_w__a_y_/w__it_h__c_o_n_f_id__en__ce_.(confidently)

(3)英语中用一些副词有两种形式,一种是-ly形式,一种是 同形容词的形式相同,一般说,前者比后者正式。 He read _lo_u__d_ly_(loud). I guessed _r_ig_h_t_l_y_ (right). (4)让步状语从句“how(who,when,what)ever”的形式比“no matter how(who,when,what)”的形式正式。 _W__h_o_e_v_e_r_(No matter who)he is,I won't see him.

2.代词 Ⅰ.关系代词 (1)定语从句中作宾语的关系词“whom”比“who”正式。 _W__h_o_m__(Who)are you waiting for? He is the person _w_h_o_m__ (who)I met the other day.
(2)在定语从句中作主语和宾语的关系词“Who”,“whom” and “which”比“that”正式。 He is the person _w_h_o_ (that)is well-known here. This is the book _w_h_i_c_h_ (that)I bought yesterday. (3)指时间和地点的从句“prep+which”比“when” and “where”从句正式。This is the place _in__w__h_ic_h_ (where)I worked.

Ⅱ.人称代词 (1)通常在比较级中主格比宾格正式。 He is taller than _I_(me). Who is there?It is _I_(me). (2)在动名词前,所属格比主格正式。 Do you mind _m_y_(me)smoking? (3)单数人称代词比复数正式。 Everyone should do _h_i_s (their)duty. Give _m_e_(us)a kiss,darling. Everyone thinks _h_e__k_n_o_w_s_ (they know)the answer.

(4)指作者本人用“we”比“I”正式。 As _w_e_(I)showed it is not an easy question. (5)泛指人时,“one”比“you”正式。 _O_n_e__(You)never knows what may happen. (6)在复合句中,主句和从句中的主语出现名词和代词时,主 句中用名词比用人称代词正式。 _T_h_e__p_l_a_n_e__to_o_k__o_f_f__a_s__so_o_n__a_s__i_t_h__a_d__r_ef_u_e_l_le_d_._ (It took off as soon as the plane had refuelled.)

Ⅲ.指示代词 (1)当“this”和“that”都是后指时,“that”比“this”正式。 _T_h__a_t (This)is what I thought. (2)“that/those”作为先行词比名词正式。 Those flowers are better than _th__o_se__w__h_ic_h_ (the flowers)we planted last year. 3.主谓一致 (1)单数比复数正式。 None/Neither of them _h_a_s_(have)arrived yet. (2)复数比单数正式。 If I _w_e_r_e_ (was)you I would do that.

Neither his wife nor his child _h_a_v_e_ (has)arrived. There _a_r_e_ (is)hundreds of people outside. (3)和kind连用的名词单数比复数正式。 _T_h_i_s__k_in_d___o_f _d_o_g_ (These kinds of dogs are)is easy to train. I like most kind of cat(cats). 4.倒装句比不倒装句正式。 _H__a_d__I__k_n_o_w_n__i_t (If I had known it)I would have told you. _H__a_r_d_ly__h_a_v_e__I__s_e_e_n__th_i_s_._ (I have hardly seen this.)

5.不省略的形式比省略的形式正式。 I know _th__a_t he is a famous writer. He is a person _w__h_o_m__ I have known for several years. I spent all the week _i_n_ writing my paper.
6.介词前提比介词结尾的句子正式。 He is a person _o_n__w__h_o_m___w_e__c_a_n__r_e_ly_(whom we can rely on). _W__i_th__w__h_a_t__d_id__h__e_w__r_it_e__it_?__ (What did he write it with?)

7.情态动词 (1)用于请求时,“may”比“can”正式。 _M__a_y_(Can)I use your bike?
(2)用于请求时,“would”和“could”比“will”和“can”正式。 Would/Could(Will/Can)you like to give a speech?
8.泛指时定冠词比名词复数正式。 _T_h__e_h_o_r_s_e__i_s_a__v_e_r_y__u_s_e_f_u_l _a_n_i_m__a_l._ (Horses are very useful animals.)

9.从句比不定式的形式正式。 It is important _t_h_a_t__w_e__s_h_o_u_l_d__d_o__it_ (for us to do it).
_I_t__s_e_em__s__t_h_a_t_h_e__i_s__a__te_a_c_h_e_r_. (He seems to be a teacher.) 10.其他的一些句子(下划线是正式的形式)。
(1) _If__y_o_u__c_o_m__e__ea_r_l_y_,__y_o_u__w_i_l_l _s_e_e__h_im__. (Come early
and you will see him.) (2) _I__s_h_a_ll__tr_y__a_n_d___d_o__it_. (I shall try to do it.) (3) _H_e__i_s__so__y_o_u__n_g__th_a_t__h_e__c_a_n__n_o_t__d_r_e_ss__h_i_m__se_l_f_.
(He is too young to dress himself.)

(4) _I_t__is__s_o__b_e_a_u_t_if_u_l_a__c_i_t_y.(It is such a beautiful city.) (5) _H_a_v_e_n_‘_t__y_o_u__h_e_a_r_d__th_e__n_e_w__s_?_ (Have you not heard the news?) (6) _T_o__m__y__su_r_p_r_i_s_e ,I hear the news.(I'm surprised to hear the news.) (7)_W__e__s_ta_r_t__f_o_r_B__e_ij_in__g__to_n_i_g_h_t_. _(We are starting for Beijing tonight.) (8) _T_o__b_e_g_i_n__w_i_t_h ,(First)we must consider this thoroughly. (9)I go to see my old friend _o_c_c_a_si_o_n_a_l_ly_ (now and then). (10)I am _h_e_n_c_e_ (therefore)unable to help you.

(11) _B_y__t_h_e__w_a_y__,(Incidentally)do you know something about this? (12)I was ill _th__er_e_f_o_r_e (so)I could not come. (13)He spoke loudly _in___o_rd__er__t_h_a_t_ (so that)every one could hear him. (14)You should work hard _e_v_e_n__th_o_u__g_h_ (even if)you have made great progress. (15)They asked me _w_h__et_h_e_r_ (if)they would come.

[即时跟踪] 请说出下列哪些短语或语句属于正式英语,哪些属于非正式 英语 A.I am sorry to inform you that... B.passive verb forms C.I am very grateful for... D.Why don't we...? E.I will not be able to attend the... F.idioms and slang... G.contracted verb forms like we've,I'm,etc. H.I look forward to hearing from you…

I.short sentences J.Dear Tom... K.Dear Ms Smith... L.Best wishes,... M.I'm really sorry I... N.Unfortunately,we will have to postpone... O.Our computers are used for a variety... 1.Formal English:___________________________________ 2.Informal English:_________________________________ 答案 1.A,B,C,E,H,K,N,O 2.D,F,G,I,J,L,M

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