Please find out the past participles.
1.The stolen _______ bike belongs to Jack. 1.作定语 过 2.The glass is broken. 2.作表语 _______ 去 3.Mary heard her name called a 作宾补 stranger. ______ by 3. 分 4.Influenced ___________ by the events of the late 19th 词 young Coubertin century and his education, 4.作状语 developed a firm belief that sports possessed the power to benefit human beings and courage peace among the nations of the world.
The Past Participle as the Adverbial
Combine the two sentences
our future school
1.When our future school is seen from the space, our future school looks like a plate. Seen from the space, our future school looks like a plate.
1. 时间状语（time） 可在过去分词前加上连词when, while, until等来强调时间概念。 When it is seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. Seen from the hill，the park… Don’t speak until you are spoken to. Don’t speak until spoken to.
Our future schoolbag
2. Because She is surprised at the schoolbag, she turns her head back to find out what happens.
Surprised at the schoolbag ,she turns her head back to find out what happens.
2. 原因状语（cause） Because the boy was greatly touched by his teacher’s words, he did a lot of things to help his classmates. Greatly touched by the teacher’s words… Because he was surprised at what happened, Tom didn’t know what to do. Surprised at what happened…
3.If I am given a time machine , I will pay a visit to the future.
Given a time machine, I will pay a visit to the future.
a time machine
If we were given more time, we could do it much better. Given more time… If it is heated to a high temperature, water will change into vapor. Heated to a high temperature…
4. 让步状语（concession） Though they had been warned of the storm, the farmers were still working in the fields. Though warned of the storm… Even if I’m invited, I won’t take part in the party. Even if invited…
5. 方式、伴随状语 Accompanying action/manner
The teacher entered the classroom, and he was followed by a group of students. The teacher entered the classroom ,followed by a group of students. The teacher stood there and was surrounded by the students.
The teacher stood there, surrounded by the students.
1.过去分词在句子中可以作时间状语、原因状 语、伴随状语、条件状语和让步状语等。 被动 或______ 完成 的动作,相当 2.过去分词作状语表示_____/ 一个状语从句。 3.过去分词作状语时其逻辑主语与主句的主语要保 持一致。
重难点辨析（一）：主语一致 Seeing from the hill, you will find _______ the city looks like a big garden. Seen _______from the hill, the city looks like a big garden.
如果句子的主语和分词是主动关系, 现在分词 ， 用_______ 句子的主语和分词是被动关系， 过去分词 用_________ 。
1. 从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。 ____ from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. A. Seeing B. Seen 2. 从太空看, 宇航员看不到长城。 ____ from the space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. A. Seeing B. Seen
lost (迷路); seated (坐); lost / absorbed in (沉溺于); dressed in (穿着); hidden (躲); born (出身于);
如：frightened, satisfied, tired, disappointed等。
Lost / Absorbed in deep thought, he didn't hear the sound. Surprised at what had happened, Tom didn’t know what to do.
分词作状语，主语是问题。 逗号前后两动作，共用一主语。 主语找出后，再来判关系。 主动-ing,被动用-ed。 Having been done 表先后， 千万要牢记。
1. 忽视了分词作状语时其逻辑主语必须是句中主语(或主动或 被动)。如: If heated, _______. A. people can turn water into gas B. one can change ice into water C. ice turns into water D. people get water from ice ★ 若分词主语与句中主语不一致,则可以用其他方法来修正:
① 给分词添加自己的主语,构成独立主格结构或改变语态。 ②改为相应的状语从句来表达。 ③用with复合结构等。
如:完成作业后,孩子们出去踢足球了。 Finished their homework, the children went out to play football. ( X )
Their homework finished, the children went out to play football. (独立主格结构)
Having finished their homework, the children went
out to play football.
With their homework finshed, the children went out to play football. (with的复合结构)
After finishing their homework, the children went out to play football. (介词+动名词)
★有些含有分词的固定插入语, 其逻辑主语 不要求与主语一致。如: judging from(从…….来判断); generally(frankly/exactly/…./ )speaking 一般地(坦率地/确切地)说; considering(考虑到)……; talking of(说到)….; supposing that(假使)….; seeing that(鉴于)…..等。 如: Considering his health, he was made to stay at home。
2. 不能正确区分doing(现在分词)和 done(过去分词)的用法 (1)______ the progamme, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed (2)_______ many times, he still came to school late. A. Having told B. Having been told C. Told D. Being told (3) ____ in thought , he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. Being lost
Much delighted (如此高兴), we decided 1)________________ to stay two more days. Function: _______ Cause
th century Burnt in the 16 2) ___________________________ (十六世纪 烧毁后), the castle was never rebuilt. Time Function: ________
Moved by his words(被他的话所感动), I 3) ________________ accepted his present. cause Function: _______
Seen from the hill (从山上看), the lake looks 4) _________________ beautiful. Condition/time Function: _______
Taken in time (如果吃地及时) the medicine 5) ______________ will be quite effective. Condition Function: _______
Practice makes perfect
1. _____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 2. If _____ the same treatment again, he’s sure to get well. A. giving B. give C. given D. being given 3. _____ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States. A. Founded B. It was founded C. Being founded D. Founding
4. ______ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean doesn’t seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 5. ______ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given
6. _______ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed 7. Unless ______ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited
8. _____ more attention, the tree could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given. 9. The computer center, ____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 10. The first textbooks _____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written
11. When _____, the museum will be open to the public next year. A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
12. _______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered 13. The research is so designed that once ________ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun
14. The ___ morning, the father came into the lonely house, ___ by his naughty boy. A.following, following B.followed,followed C. following, followed Dfollowed,following 15. _____, but he still could not understand it. A. Told many times B. Having been told many times C. He has been told many times D. Though he had been told many times
2011天津卷______ into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order. ? A. Translating B. Translated ? C. To translate D. Having translated 2011上海春招______ in 1955, Disneyland in California is regarded by many as the original fun park. ? A. Opened B. Having opened ? C. Opening D. Being opened
(2010) ._____ from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees . A. Seen B. Seeing C. Having seen D. To see (2010).____at my classmates' faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes. A. Looking B. Look C. To look D. Looked
1. Finish Exe. 1 on page18. 2. Go over “The Past Participle as the Adverbial”.