英语专业 2007--2008 学年第二学期普通语言学考试试卷
Choose ALL the correct ones from A, B, C, or D. There may be as many as three correct choices. (30 points, 2 points each)
1) “It is wrong to split an infinitive.” This is an example of _____ rules. A. prescriptive C. transformational B. descriptive D. functional
2) The distinction between competence and performance was put forward by _____. A. Leonard Bloomfield C. Noam Chomsky B. Ferdinand de Saussure D. M. A. K. Halliday
3) Which of the following is the correct description of [t]? A. Voiceless alveolar stop. C. Voiced alveolar stop. B. Voiceless alveolar fricative. D. Voiced alveolar fricative.
4) Which of the following is a voiced labiodental fricative? A. [s] B. [z] C. [v] D. [f]
5) Which of the following are “derivational suffixes”? A. -s B. -ion C. -ing D. -ify
6) Which of the following are “content words”? A. Nouns. B. Verbs. C. Determiners. D. Prepositions.
7) Which of the following is the correct bracketing of the phrase structure in the sentence “The boy is crying”? A. [[The] [boy] [is] [crying]] C. [[The boy] is [crying]] B. [[The] [boy]] [[is] [crying]] D. [[The] [boy] [is]] [crying]
8) Which of the following sentences contain a participial phrase? A. The best thing would be to leave early. B. Having finished their work, they came to our aid. C. It’s great for a man to be free. D. To my surprise, she started looking for jobs. 9) Which of the following terms are related to Cognitive Linguistics? A. Word recognition. C. Construal operations. B. Language acquisition. D. Categorization.
10) Which of the following are NOT true of the “women register”? A. Women use more “fancy” color terms. B. Women use stronger swearing words. C. Women use more intensifiers. D. Women use more direct expressions. 11) Which of the following forms of writing are more likely to use foregrounding? A. Poetry. C. Research Papers. B. Diary. D. Novels.
12) Which of the following include a metaphor? A. His eyes came out of his head like a prawn’s. B. The hallway was zebra-striped with darkness and moonlight. C. The thought was a fire in him. D. The world is a looking-glass, and gives back to every man the reflection of his own face. 13) Which of the following are writings of stream of consciousness? A. Pride and Prejudice C. As I Lay Dying. B. To the Lighthouse. D. Jane Eyre.
14) Which of the following book titles contain “alliteration”? A. Vowels and Consonants. C. Sex and the City. B. Gone with the Wind. D. The Wonder of Words.
15) “_____” is often understood as a language system between the target language and the learner’s native language. A. Input Hypothesis C. Interlanguage B. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis D. Contrastive Analysis
2. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F). (10 points, 1 point each) 1) Duality refers to the property of having two levels of structures， such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization. 2) Articulatory Phonetics studies the physical properties of speech sounds. 3) The adjective is an open class of words. 4) The “parts of speech” in traditional grammar is often referred to as “word class” today. 5) “Hot” and “cold” are converse antonyms.
6) The holophrastic stage is the mature phase of language acquisition. 7) Men use stronger curse words than women. 8) The Relevance Theory was suggested by H. P. Grice. 9) Stream of consciousness was used in the writings of William Faulkner. 10) Machine translation can be used for restricted technical purposes, such as the weather report. ? 3. Briefly explain the following terms. (20 points, 5 points each)
1) lateral 2) back-formation 3) cognition 4) foregrounding
Answer TWO of the following questions. (40 points, 20 points each)
1) Use examples to illustrate the concept of “recursiveness”. 2) Describe the three categories of conceptual metaphors. 3) In recent years, numerous new words have entered the daily life of Chinese people, e.g. 上网，海选. Give a list of (about 10) such words, discuss the context of their usage, and provide a feasible explanation of their booming.
I. 多选题。 （30 分，每题 2 分） 评分须知： 1) 如果答案为一个选项，则答对给 2 分，答错不给分； 2) 如果答案为两个选项，则答对一个给 1 分，答对两个给 2 分； 3) 如果答案为 3 个选项，则答对 1-2 个给 1 分，答对三个给 2 分，只答对一个 或没有答对不给分。 4) 选错一个选项不扣分，选错两个扣 1 分，选错三个扣 2 分。 答案： 1. A 6. AB 11. A 2. C 7. B 12. BCD 3. A 8. BD 13. BC 4. C 9. CD 14. BCD 5. BD 10. BD 15. C
II. 辨析题。 （10 分，每题 1 分） 评分须知：判断正确每题给 2 分，判断错误不给分。 答案： 1. T 6. F 2. F 7. T 3. T 8. F 4. T 9. T 5. F 10. T
III. 解词。 （20 分，每题 5 分） 评分须知：每题 5 分，根据考生回答完整情况酌情给分。 参考答案： 1) lateral Lateral is a manner of articulation when the obstruction of the airstream is at a point along the center of the oral tract, with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. As the lateral passage forms a stricture of open approximation, it is called “lateral”. If friction is produced, it is a “lateral fricative”. If no noise of friction is produced, it is a “lateral approximant”. [l] is the only one lateral in English. 2) back-formation Back-formation refers to an unusual type of word-formation where a shorter word is
derived by deleting an imagined affix from a longer form already in the language. Take televise for example. The word television appeared before televise. The first part of the word television was pulled out and analyzed as a root, even though no such root occurs elsewhere in the English language. 3) cognition The term “cognition” is used in several different loosely related ways. In psychology it is used to refer to the mental processes of an individual, with particular relation to a view that argues that the mind has internal mental states (such as beliefs, desires and intentions) and can be understood in terms of information processing, especially when a lot of abstraction or concretization is involved, or processes such as involving knowledge, expertise or learning for example are at work. Another definition of “cognition” is the mental process or faculty of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. 4) foregrounding Foregrounding is a term originally coming from visual arts and used in stylistics, referring to “artistically motivated deviation” in literary language. The deviation, or uncommon usage, involves all levels of language: vocabulary, sound, syntax, meaning, graphology, etc. Repetition is also a kind of deviation as it violates the normal rules of usage by over-frequency. Repetitive patterns (of sound or syntax, for example) are superimposed on the background of expectations of normal usage and so strike the readers’ attention as unusual. Alliteration, parallelism, and many figures of speech or schemes involving repetition of lexical terms are thus commonly exploited in foregrounding in literary language. IV. 答题。 （40 分，每题 20 分） 评分须知：选答 2 题，满分 40 分。根据参考答案及考生回答完整情况酌情给分。 参考答案： 1) Recursiveness is an umbrella term, under which may be brought together several important linguistic phenomena such as coordination and subordination, conjoining and embedding, hypotactic and paratactic. All these are means to extend sentences. Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of embedded clauses in a sentence, so long as it does not become an obstacle to successful communication. This is what we call recursiveness, for example,
(1) I met a man who had a son whose wife sold cookies that she had baked in her kitchen that was fully equipped with electrical appliances that were new. Recursiveness, together with openness, is generally regarded as the core of creativity of language. Coordination and conjoining are different names for the same linguistic phenomenon, that is, to use and, but or or to join together syntactic constituents with the same function. For instance, the sentence A man got into the car could be extended into a sentence like this “[NP A man, a woman, a boy, a car and a dog] got into the car”. Subordination and embedding can be understood as the extension of any syntactic constituent by inserting one or more syntactic elements with different functions into another. I saw the man who had visited you last year is an extended sentence by changing the independent clause The man had visited you last year into a dependent element (here a relative clause). Other examples of this type include: (2) I saw the man who had visited you last year. (relative clause) (3) I don’t know whether Professor Li needs this book. (complement clause) (4) If you listened to me, you wouldn't make mistakes. (adverbial clause) Hypotaxis and parataxis are two traditional terms for the description of syntactic relations between sentences. In the examples below, the former is hypotactic, while the latter is paratactic: (5) We live near the sea. So we enjoy a healthy climate. (6) He dictated the letter. She wrote it. 2) In their book, Metaphors We Live By (1980), Lakoff and Johonson classify conceptual metaphors into three categories: ontological metaphors, structural metaphors and orientational metaphors. Ontological metaphors mean that human experiences with physical objects provide the basis for ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc., as entities and substances. Ontological metaphors can serve various purposes. By ontological metaphors we give bounded surfaces to less clearly discrete entities (mountains, hedges, street corners) and categorize events, actions and states as substances. In ontological metaphors it is our experiences of interacting with physical bounded bodies, which provide the basis for categorizing events, activities, ideas etc., as entities and substances. Structural metaphors play the most important role because they allow us to go beyond orientation and referring and give us the possibility to structure one concept according to another. This means that structural metaphors are grounded in our experience. Structural metaphors imply how one concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another.
Orientational metaphors give a concept a spatial orientation. They are characterized not so much by structuring one concept in terms of another, but by a co-occurrence in our experience. The orientational metaphors are grounded in an experiential basis, which link together the two parts of the metaphor. The link verb “is”, part of the metaphor, should be seen as the link of two different co-occurring experiences. For example, MORE IS UP. This metaphor is grounded in the co-occurrence of two different kinds of experiences: adding more of a substance and perceiving the level of the substance rise. Orientational metaphors are based on human physical and cultural experience. For example, in some cultures the future is in front of us, whereas in others it is in back of us. Now let us study some orientational metaphors and give a brief hint about how each metaphorical concept might have arisen from human physical and cultural experience. 3) If we compare newspaper articles published recently with those published five years ago, we will catch a big difference in their lexical choice—there are so many new words and expressions in these new articles. Based on the results of this comparison, we may predict that today's readers will find it a little bit difficult to understand what future newspapers will carry. Over the past decades, Chinese people have enjoyed a much more colorful life, materially and spiritually. The rapid development in science, technology, economics, culture, and education has brought in our daily communication thousands and thousands of new words. Words such as 短信、鼠标、上网、博客、动漫、网游、 按揭、干细胞、海选(in an election or contest)、海面(in a job interview), which used to sound so professional, have now become part of our active vocabulary and are used frequently in our speech. Facing a situation like this, you may ask this question: Where do these new words and expressions come from? It is not an easy job to tell a complete story of these words. If you look at the question from a sociolinguistic point of view, you may claim that language changes with society. Words are the most active, sensible, and changeable component of language. Following this line of reasoning, we may conclude that, as society changes, the vocabulary of our language will become richer, more colorful and expressive in the days to come.