1.定语从句：定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句，其作用是作定语修饰主句的某 个名词性成分，相当于形容词，一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。 2.关系词：引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词，关系词有关系代词和关系副词。 关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等； 关系副词有 where, when, why 等。 关系词常有 3 个作用： 引导定语从句、 代替先行词、 在定语从句中担当一个成分。 1 2 3 注：关系代词有主语、宾语之分。一般 whom 作为宾语。 3.先行词：被定语从句修饰的名词、代词称为先行词。 二、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 （一） 限定性定语从句（没有逗号） （1）关系代词（在句中作主语、宾语或定语） 1. that 既可代表事物也可代表人 which 代表事物。 注：that 和 which 在从句中作宾语时常可省略。 e.g. The number of the people that come to visit the city each year rises one million. e.g. Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 2.代表物时多用 which，但在带有下列词的句子中用 that 而不用 which： 当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing , none 等不定代词时， 或者是 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时等， 或者是有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时、既有人又有物时、句中前面有 which 时 都只能用 that。 3. who 和 whom 引导的从句用来修饰人，who 作从句中的主语,whom 作宾语 e.g. The boys who are playing football are from Class One. e.g. Mr. Ling is just the boy whom I want to see. e.g. The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 4. whose 是关系代词，修饰名词作定语，相当于所修饰成分的前置所有格。它引导的从 句可以修饰人和物, 当它引导的从句修饰物体时, 可以与 of which 调换,表达的意思一样。 e.g. He has a friend whose father is a doctor. （2）关系副词（在句中作状语） 关系副词=介词+关系代词 why=for which where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) when=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介 词同先行词搭配) 1. where 是关系副词，用来表示地点的定语从句。 e.g. Shanghai is the city where I was born. 2. when 引导定语从句表示时间 e.g. I still remember the day when I first came to the school. 注：表示时间“time"一词的定语从句只用 when 引导，有时不用任何关系代词。 e.g. Each time he goes to business trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towels, soap, toothbrush etc。 e.g. (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous. (2) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. 注意：①含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of 等 (1) This is th e watch which/that I am looking for. (T＝正确) (2) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F＝错误) ②若介词放在关系代词前， 关系代词指人时用 whom， 不可用 who 或者 that； 指物时用 which， 不能用 that；关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (2) The man with that you talked is my friend. (F) (3) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) (4) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) ③ “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数 词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 3. why 是关系副词，用来表示原因的定语从句。 e.g. I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. （二）非限定性定语从句（有逗号） 非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明， 通常是引导词和先行词之间 用逗号隔开，将从句拿掉后，其他部分仍可成立。 1. which 引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。 2.当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时，其后的定语从句通常是非限制 性的，例如： Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 3.非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词， 对其进行修饰, 这 时从句谓语动词要 用第三人称单数，例如： He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 4. 在非限定性定语从句中，不能用关系副词 why 和关系代词 that，而用 who, whom 代 表人，用 which, whose 代表事物。 注：在非限制性定语从句中，不可使用关系代词 that 和关系副词 why，也不能省略关系代 词或关系副词。 三、巩固练习 Ⅰ．用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空： 1．This is the car, _______we bought last month. 2．Mr Smith is a famous professor, _______works in BeijingUniversity. 3．He was often late for class, ______made his teacher very angry. 4．He is studying English, _______knowledge is very useful today. 5．There are many people there, most of _______are students.
6．The boss, _______department I have been working in, is very friendly to me. 7．They will move into the building next month, ______all the work will have been finished. 8．This is his hometown, ________he was brought up when he was young. 9．He is a very kind man, ______ you can turn for help if you need. 10．He studied in Shanghai for four years, ______he made many friends there. Ⅱ． 单项填空 1．We are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou, ______live my grandparents and some relatives. A. which A. which A. two of whom C. both of which A. most of that C. most of which A. which A. whom A. who B. with which B. that B. whom B. that B. it C. who C. what B. both of whom D. all of whom B. which most D. that most C. without, which C. which C. that D. / D. / D. that D. where D. that 2．Some of the roads were flooded, _______made our journey more difficult. 3．He has two sons, _______work as chemists.
4．The buses, ______were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.
5．My glasses, _______ I was like a blind man, fell to the ground and broke. 6．Mr.Wu, ________everybody likes, is going to give us a talk on chemistry. 7．This is Mr. Smith, _______ I think has something interesting to tell us. 8．_______, the compass was first made in China. A. It is known to all C. We all know A. who is A. who B. who am B. that B. It is known to all that D. As is known to all C. that is C. from which D. what is D. from whom
9．I, _______your good friend, will try my best to help you out. 10．He is a man of great experience, _______much can be learned.