外研版高中英语必修3 Module1教学设计Module1 教案教案

Module 1 EUROPE

话题介绍 Period 1 Reading
Period 2 Function Period 3 Grammar Period 4 Writing

教学设计说明
本模块主题是“欧洲”,即欧罗巴洲,“欧罗巴”一词据说最初来自闪 族语的“伊利布(ereb)”一字,意是“日落的地方”或“西方的土 地”。 INTRODUCTION Vocabulary and reading 和 READING AND VOCABULARY 合并为第一课时“阅读课”。课文“Great European Cities”属说明文体,介绍了巴黎、巴塞罗那、佛罗伦萨和雅典四个 著名的欧洲城市。在学生课前自学、预习的基础上,以背景介绍导入 新课,然后采取“自上而下”的阅读教学模式,引导学生关注文章的 篇章结构、段落大意,得出“树型图”,进行“信息转换”,理解全文 、复述意义。 教师还可以参考“教学资源”The Analysis of the Difficult Sentences from Module 1 EUROPE 中的材料,帮助学生解决字、词、 句等方面的问题。 第二课时 FUNCTION Describing location 是“功能课”,学习描述“处 所”。教学重点是方位介词 in,on,to 的用法。 课本 5 页 GRAMMAR 1 Passive voice: present and past forms 和 7 页的 Grammar 2 Subject and verb agreement 合并为第三课时“语法课”,集 中学习和演练 Passive voice and subject and verb agreement。语法教学 的方法不外乎“归纳法”、和“演绎法”。在外语教学环境中,一般采 用演绎法。 课本 6 页的“Writing”为“写作课”,学习 writing about cities and writing dialogues。引导学生用对话形式演绎阅读课课文,然后模仿其语篇结 构、尽量运用课文中学到的词语、结构和话题模式,用说明文体介绍 自己熟悉和喜爱的城市。

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Period 5 Speaking Period 6 CULTURAL CORNER
Period 7 TASK

课本 8 页的 PRONUNCIATION AND EVERYDAY ENGLISH 为“口 语课”。利用我们提供的材料,使用“演绎法”教学“反意疑问句”, 然后模仿课文模式,引导学生小组谈论欧洲都市和自己生活的地方。 “总有一天,到那时,……,所有的欧洲国家,无须丢掉你们各自的 特点和闪光的个性,都将紧紧地融合在一个高一级的整体里;到那时, 你们将构筑欧洲的友爱关系……” 维克多·雨果当年所憧憬的“高一级的整体”就是课本 9 页“文化阅 读课/CULTURE CORNER”的主题 The European Union“欧盟”。 欧洲联盟是由欧洲共同体 (European communities) 发展而来的,是一 个集政治实体和经济实体于一身、在世界上具有重要影响的区域一体 化组织。1991年12月,欧洲共同体马斯特里赫特首脑会议通过 《欧洲联盟条约》,通称《马斯特里赫特条约》(简称《马约》)。19 93年11月1日,《马约》正式生效,欧盟正式诞生。总部设在比 利时首都布鲁塞尔。 “文化阅读课”和“阅读课”的区别是:前者注重意义阅读,后者注 重技能阅读。 课本 10 页的 TASK 是“任务课”,学习用英文整理、编撰中国某一 地区的“事实档案”(Preparing a fact file on a region of China)。学生 课前利用图书馆、网络等手段收集某一地区的 facts,课上教师出示 若干 file 范例,指导学生完成 a fact file on a region。
Part One Teaching Design
第一部分 教学设计

Period 1 Reading—Great European Cities

■Goals

● To learn to read passages with passive voice (present and past forms) about European cities ● To learn to read with strategies
■Procedures
Step 1: Warming up by learning about Europe ▲ European Union: an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members; "he took Britain into Europe" ▲ Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. It is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, and to the east by the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea Step 2: Before you read
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Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the

relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling.

Step 3: While you read

1. Type of writing and summary of Great European Cities

Type of writing Idea of 1st part

A description essay PARIS: Paris is the capital and largest city of France, situated on the

Idea of 2nd part

River Seine. BARCELONA: Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain and is

situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of the

Idea of 3rd part

Spanish capital, Madrid. FLORENCE: Florence is an Italian city which became famous because

of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s

Idea of 4th part

and lasted for three hundred years. ATHENS: Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the birthplace of

western civilization.

2. A diagram of Great European Cities

Great European Cities

PARIS: the capital and largest city of France

BARCELONA : the second largest city of Spain

FLORENCE: an

Italian

city

famous because

of

the

Renaissance

ATHENS: the capital of Greece

3. Complete the article with one word in each blank

Being the capital and largest city of France, _1_is situated on the River Seine. As one of the most

beautiful cities in the word Paris is _2_ by more than eight million tourists every year. Barcelona

is the second largest city of _3_ and is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred

kilometers east of the Spanish _4_, Madrid. Florence is an Italian city which became famous

because of the Renaissance, a great _5_ movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three

hundred years. Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the _6_ of western civilization. Two

thousand four _7_ yeas ago, it was the word’s most powerful city.

Keys: 1 Paris 2 visited 3 Spain 4 capital 5 artistic 6 birthplace 7 hundred

4. Answer the reading comprehension questions according to the text

1. The famous symbol of Pairs is _____.

A. the Church of the Sagrada Familia B. the Parthenon C. The Uffizi Palace D. the Eiffel Tower

2. Barcelona is the second largest city of _____.

A. France B. Spain

C. Italy

D. Greece

3. The Renaissance is a great artistic movement which began in the_____and lasted for three

hundred years.

A. 1400s

B. 1500s

C. 1300s

D. 1600s

4. Athens is known as the birthplace of _____.

A. western civilization B. Antonio Gaudi. C. Leonardo da Vinci D. Michelangelo

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Keys: 1-4 DBCA Step 4: After you read 1. Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. If possible, make your own sentences with these expressions.
Useful expressions from Great European Cities the capital and largest city of …, be situated on…, one of the most beautiful cities in the world, the most popular place for…, the famous symbol of…, the world’s largest art galleries, be located in…, be famous for…, about two - thirds of…, the second largest city of…, the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of…, be designed by…, work on …, an Italian city, become famous, because of…, a great artistic movement, in the 1300s, last for three hundred years, during the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time, be produced by great artists such as …, be visited each year by about a million tourists, come to see the art galleries, be known as…, the birthplace of western civilization, two thousand four hundred years ago, the world’s most powerful city, ever since
Sentences made with expressions from Module 1 1. Beijing is the capital and largest city of China. 2. My hometown is situated on River Zhang. 3. Suzhou is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 4. The Double Tower is the most popular place for visitors to Taiyuan. 5. The Double Tower is the famous symbol of Taiyuan. 6. The world’s largest art galleries are found in Beijing. 7. Wu Tai Mountain is located in the north part of Shanxi Province. 8. Shanxi is famous for its coal. 9. About two - thirds of the people live in the countryside. 10. Datong is the second largest city of Shanxi. 11. The northeast coast is about five hundred kilometers east of the city. 12. The house is designed by a blind man. 13. The blind man worked on the design from 1990 until his death in November, 2005. 14. An Italian city became famous because of an earthquake last week. 15. A great artistic movement is beginning to be known throughout the world. 16. In the 1300s, many great novels came into being. 17. For the last for three hundred years Chinese people have been fighting against foreign invaders. 18. During the Renaissance many writers moved to live in this city. 19. Some of the greatest painters of all time died young. 20. The paintings were produced by great artists such as Zhang Hong and Li Fang. 21. The ancient town of Pingyao is visited each year by about a million tourists. 22. People come to see the art galleries, churches and museums. 23. The capital of the country is known as the birthplace of western civilization. 24. Two thousand four hundred years ago, the world’s most powerful city, such as Beijing, Xi’an had already been built. 25. He came to England three years ago and has lived here ever since. 2. Read to transfer information
Great European Cities
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Paris: the capital and largest city of France, situated on the River Seine. Barcelona: the second largest city of Spain, situated on the northeast coast. One of the Barcelona’s most famous landmarks: the Church of the Sagrada Familia. Florence: an Italian city famous because of the Renaissance. Athens: the capital of Greece, known as the birthplace of western civilization. Step 5: Closing up by retelling the text To end this period we are going to retell the text with the help of the diagram above. Try to use as many passive voice sentences as possible. Paris The capital and largest city of France is found to be Paris. It is situated on the River Seine. Paris is thought as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It is visited by many people every minute. The most popular place for travelers is in fact the Eiffel Tower. It is regarded as the famous symbol of the capital. The world’s largest art galleries are located in Paris. They are famous for the collections. About two - thirds of the country’s artists and writers are found to live in the capital city. Barcelona The second largest city of Spain is situated on the coast. It is Barcelona, on the northeast coast. It is about five hundred kilometers east of Madrid, the capital city. One of the Barcelona’s most famous landmarks, the Church of the Sagrada Familia, was designed by Antonio Gaudi. He worked on the church until his death in 1926. Florence The Italian city of Florence became famous because of a great artistic movement which is called the Renaissance. This Barcelona was begun in the 1300s. It is believed to have lasted for three hundred years. During the Renaissance some of the greatest painters of all time were found to live and work in Florence. Many of Florence’s most beautiful paintings and sculptures were believed to be produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci. Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists. They come to see the art galleries, churches and museums. The most famous art gallery in the city is the Uffizi Palace. Athens The capital of Greece is Athens. It is believed to be the birthplace of western civilization. Two thousand four hundred years ago, it became the world’s most powerful city. Many famous buildings were built during that period. In ancient Athens lived Greece’s best writers. Other writers were influenced by them.
Section 2 The Analysis of the Difficult Sentences from
Module 1 EUROPE
1. Paris is the capital and largest city of France, situated on the River Seine. 巴黎是法国首 都和最大的城市。 句中 situated on the River Seine 是过去分词作定语。作定语用的过去分词相当于形容词,其 逻辑主语就是它所修饰的名词。及物动词的过去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成;不及物动 词的过去分词作定语,只表完成。 1) 过去分词用作定语,常可置于其所修饰的名词之前。
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例如:We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions. 我们必须使我们的思想适应改变 了的情况。 The boy looked up with a pleased expression. 那男孩带着满意的表情举目而视。 2) 过去分词短语用作定语时,一般置于其所修饰的名词之后,其意义相当于一个定语从句, 但较从句简洁,多用于书面语中。 例如: The concert given by their friends was a success. 他们朋友举行的音乐会大为成功。 The only car repaired by the mechanic is mine。 2. The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Pairs. 最受 游客欢迎的地方是艾菲尔铁塔,它是巴黎的象征。 句子中 the famous symbol of Pairs 是 the Eiffel Tower 的同位语。 一个名词(或其它形式)对另一个名词或代词进行修饰,限定或说明,这个名词(或其它形 式)就是同位语。同位语与被它限定的词的格要一致,常出现在被限定词前,中间有逗号分 开。 two universities, Beida and Nankai 两所大学,北大和南开 The defendant, a woman of 35, denies kicking the policeman. 被告,一位三十五岁的妇女,否 认踢了警察。 The rich man, a banker, was a criminal. 那个有钱人,一个银行家,是个罪犯。 3. One of the Barcelona’s most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia, which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. 巴塞罗那最著名的地标是圣家赎 罪堂,它是建筑大师 Antonio Gaudi 设计的。 圣家赎罪堂(又名神圣家族大教堂)是由西班牙最伟大的建筑设计师高迪设计的,无论你身 处巴塞罗那的哪一方,只要抬起头就能看到它。这座教堂从高迪在世时直到现在都在不停地 建造,已经一个多世纪了,仍未造完,在它高高的塔顶上仍是布满了脚手架。 这是一座象 征主义建筑,分为三组,描绘出东方的基督诞生、基督受难及西方的死亡,南方则象征上帝 的荣耀;它的四座尖塔代表了十二位基督圣徒;圆顶覆盖的后半部则象征圣母玛利亚。它的 墙面主要以当地的动植物形象作为装饰,正面的三道门以彩色的陶瓷装点而成。整个建筑华 美异常,令人叹为观止,是建筑史上的奇迹。 现在这里已经成为一间小型的博物馆,里面 陈列着高迪的相片及生平介绍。 4. The church hasn’t been finished yet! 教堂迄今还未完工! yet 的用法如下: 1) yet 用于否定句中,意思是“还、尚、迄今、到那时”。 例如:He is not yet here. 他还未到。 At three o’clock they had not yet decided whether to play basketball or not. 三点钟时他们尚未 决定是否去打篮球。 2) 用于疑问句中,意思是“已经”。 例如:Is everything ready yet? 一切都准备好了吗? 3) 与比较级连用,意思是“更”。 例如:You must work yet harder. 你还需更努力地工作。 4)用于肯定句中,意思是“仍然、还得”。 例如:She is yet a child. 她还是个孩子。 5)用作并列连词时,意思是“然而、可是”。 例如:He studied hard yet he failed. 他学习努力,可是考试仍未及格。 5. Their works has influenced other writers ever since. 他们的作品从那时起就一直影响作 别的作家。
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ever since 引导的时间状语从句中,主句用现在完成时,谓语动词通常要用一般过去时,且 谓语动词要用延续性动词。 例:Mr Smith has lived here ever since he came to China. (正) 史密斯先生自从来到中国一直住在这里。 Mr Smith has bought many Chinese books ever since he came to China. (误) 史密斯先生自从来到中国已买了很多汉语书籍。 这里 buy 是“非延续性”动词,不能和表示一段时间的状语连用,应换成 have 的过去分词。 即:Mr Smith has had many Chinese books ever since he came to China.

Period 3 Grammar—Passive voice and subject and verb

agreement

■Goals ● To learn about passive voice: present and past forms ● To learn about subject and verb agreement

■Procedures

Step 1: Learning about passive voice: present and past forms

For every tense in the Active Voice, there is a corresponding tense in the Passive Voice. In the

Passive Voice, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. The Passive Voice tenses of an English verb are

formed from the corresponding conjugations of to be, followed by the past participle of the verb.

The Formation of passive voice: present and past forms

Tense

Auxiliary

Verb Form

Simple Present

am/is/are

past participle

Present Continuous

am/is/are being

past participle

Present Perfect

have/has been

past participle

Present Perfect Continuous

have/has been being

past participle

Simple Past

was/were

past participle

Past Continuous

was/were being

past participle

Past Perfect

had been

past participle

Past Perfect Continuous

had been being

past participle

Simple Future

will (shall) be

past participle

Future Continuous

will (shall) be being

past participle

Future Perfect

will (shall) have been

past participle

Future Perfect Continuous

will (shall) have been being

past participle

Step 2: Making passive voice sentences in present and past forms

Now you are going to turn as many sentences from Great European Cities as possible into passive

voice sentences in present and past forms.

Paris is made the capital of France.

Paris is built on the River Seine.

Paris is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

Paris is visited by more than eight million tourists every year.

The Eiffel Tower is looked as the most popular place for tourists.

The Eiffel Tower is made the famous symbol of Pairs.

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The Louvre is also found in Paris. The Church of the Sagrada Familia was designed by an architect. The architect is called Antonio Gaudi. The church hasn’t been finished yet. The paintings were produced by great artists. Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists. Athens is found to be the birthplace of western civilization. The Parthenon was built during this period. Greece’s best writers were invited to live in ancient Athens. Other writers were influenced by them. Step 3: Learning about subject and verb agreement Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. For example: My brother is a teacher. My sisters are mathematicians. The subject of a sentence must agree with the verb of the sentence. How do they agree? They must agree in two ways: in number: singular vs. plural, in person: first, second, or third person. We all know these meanings of "agree," but when we talk about subject-verb agreement; we're talking about something different: matching subjects and verbs according to number. That is, when you have a singular subject, you have to match it with a singular verb form: The boy plays. When you have a plural subject, you must have a plural verb form: The boys play. In short, simple sentences, you should have no problem with agreement. You can hear the problem: The boys plays. When it's wrong, it just sounds funny. Step 4: Summarizing subject and verb agreement “more than one +名词”作主语时,谓语动词常用单数: More than one teachers gets the dictionaries. “many a +名词”作主语时,从意义上看是复数,但谓语动词常用单数: Many a workers has been sent to build the dam. “half of, the rest of, most of, all of 及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词”作主语时,谓语动词形 式根据 of 后的名词而定:Three fourths of the land is covered with trees. all 指人时,动词用复数;all 指物时,动词用单数:All are present and all is going well. what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词可视表语而定:表语是单数名词时,动词用单数,相反, 则用复数:What they want to get are a number of good cars. and 连接的两个单数名词前若用 each, every, no 修饰,该名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单 数形式:No man and no dog is found in the room. 当主语后面有 as well as, with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except 等引 的短语时,谓语动词与最前面的主语保持一致:My mother as well as her sisters has been to Taiyuan. each 作主语的同位语时, 谓语动词由主语来决定,与 each 无关:They each have a radio set. 动词不定式、动词-ing 形式短语作主语时,谓语动词常用单数:Going shopping on weekends is not good. The following 作主语时,谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致: The following are my articles. 下面是我的文章。
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以-ics 结尾的学科名词,如 politics 等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。以-s 结尾的名词 news, works 等同属此类:Politics is not interesting.

有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数(trousers, glasses, shoes 等)作主语时, 前面若有“一条”、“一副”、“一把”之类的单位词,动词用单数;若没有单位词或单位词是 复数,则谓语动词用复数:The trousers are ok. “One and a half +名词”作主语时,谓语动词要用单数:One and a half hours is not enough. “one or two/ more+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数:One or two cities are flooded.
“one of+复数名词+ 定语从句”结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数;而在“the only one of+复数名词+定语从句” 结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用单数:He is one of the workers

who got laid off. 表示时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时,谓语动词常用单数,但

若强调数量,谓语动词可用复数:One million yuan is a lot of money.

Step 4: Absorb information concerning National College Entrance Examination

高考链接

1. Nobody but Jane ____ the secret. (2005 全国)

A. know

B. knows C. have known

2. All but one _____ here just now. (2004 全国)

D. is known

A. is

B. was

C. has been D. were

3. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another. (2003 全

国)

A. is

B. are

C. am

D. be

4. A library with five thousand books _______ to the nation as a gift. (1999 全国)

A. is offered

B. have offered

C. are offered

D. has offered

5. When and where to build the new factory _____ yet. (2001 全国)

A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided

6. The number of people invited ______ fifty, but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons. (1996 全国)

A. were, was B. was , was

C. was , were D. were , were

7._____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass. (2000 全国)

A. Two fifth, is B. Two fifth, are C. Two fifths, is D. Two fifths , are

8. A poet and artist ___ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. (2006 天津)

A. is B. are C. was D. were 9. Most of what has been said about the Smiths ____ also true of the Johnsons.(2006 安徽)

A. are B. is C. being D. to be 10. What we used to think ___ impossible now does seem possible. (2006 天津)

A. is B. was C. has been D. will be

Keys: 1-5 BDBAA 6-10 CCABB

Step 5:巩固练习

1. This is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked.

A. have

B. has

C. have been

D. has been

2. Between then two rows of trees _____ the teaching building.

A. stand

B. stands

C. standing

D. are

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3. All that can be done______.

A. has been done

B. has done C. have done

D. were done

4. They each _____ a new dictionary.

A. has

B. have

C. is

D. are

5. The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting.

A. has

B. have

C. are

D. is

6. I have finished a large part of the book ; the rest _____more difficult.

A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

7. The wounded _______ by the hospital.

A. have been taken in B. has been taken in C. have taken in

D. has taken in

8. Business studies _ a skill-based subject which_ students’ ability to use their knowledge.

A. is; test

B. is; tests

C. are; test

D. are; tests

9. Behind the discussion about free e-mails __ the idea of how to use the Internet correctly.

A. is

B. are

C. have

D. has

10. The excellent service of the waiters __ highly praised. That’s why the restaurant is always full

of people.

A. were

B. are

C. was

D. is

Keys: 1-5 CBABB 6-10 AABAD

Period 4 Writing—Writing about cities and writing
dialogues
■Goals ● To learn to write about cities ■Procedures Step 1: Writing about Paris and Barcelona Paris Paris, city (1999 pop. 2,115,757; metropolitan area est. pop. 11,000,000), N central France, capital of the country, on the Seine River. It is the commercial and industrial focus of France and a cultural and intellectual center of international renown. The city possesses an indefinable unity of atmosphere that has fascinated writers, poets, and painters for centuries. Paris is sometimes called the City of Light in tribute to its intellectual preeminence as well as to its beautiful appearance. Paris is the center of many major newspapers and periodicals, as well as all the major French radio and television stations. Elegant stores and hotels, lavish nightclubs, theaters, and gourmet restaurants help make tourism the biggest industry in Paris. Other leading industries manufacture luxury articles, high-fashion clothing, perfume, and jewelry. Heavy industry, notably automobile manufacture, is located in the suburbs. About one quarter of the French labor force is concentrated in the Paris area.

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Barcelona A handsome modern city, Barcelona has broad avenues, bustling traffic, and striking new buildings. The old city, with winding, narrow streets (Roman walls are still visible), has many historic structures, including the imposing Cathedral of Santa Eulalia (13th–15th cent.) with its fine cloisters, the Church of Santa María del Mar, the city hall, and the Lonja or exchange. Also notable is the Church of the Sagrada Familia (begun 1882), designed by Antonio Gaudí. Barcelona is the site of the Fine Arts Museum of Catalonia, the Picasso Museum, the Contemporary Art Museum, and a noted opera house. Step 2: Putting the text into a dialogue You are going to working pairs to put the text Great European Cities into a dialogue. Tomorrow you will be asked to act it out.
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A: You are a foreign student here? B: Yes, I am. I am from France. A: What city is the capital city? B: Paris is the capital city. A: Is it the largest city of France, too? B: Yes, it is. A: Where is Paris? B: It is situated on the River Seine. A: Are there many visitors there? B: Yes, there are. Paris is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. A: What is the most famous place of interest? B: The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower. A: And it is also the famous symbol of Pairs. B: You are right. A: By the way, where is the Louvre? B: It is one of the world’s largest art galleries, and it is also located in Paris.
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A: What else is the city famous for? A: The city is also famous for its restaurants, cafés and theatres. B: And I hear that about two - thirds of France’s artists and writers live in Paris.
A: Yesterday I watched a nice movie on TV. B: What was it? A: It is Love in Athens. B: Athens? It is the capital of Greece, isn’t it? A: Yes, it is. B: What is it famous for? A: The city is known as the birthplace of western civilization. B: Then it is a city with a long history, isn’t it? A: Yes, it is. Two thousand four hundred yeas ago, it was the world’s most powerful city. B: I remember that Buildings such as the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hill were perhaps built there. A: Exactly. They were built there almost two thousand four hundred years ago. B: Did some great people live there? A: Yes, they did. Greece’s best writers lived in ancient Athens, and their works has
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influenced other writers ever since.
A: I am visiting Florence next week. Would you be so kind as to tell me something about it? B: Yes, of course. A: What is Florence famous for? B: Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance. A: The Renaissance? What is it? B: It is a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. A: Why is Florence famous for the Renaissance? B: Because some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. A: Did they produce any works there? B: Yes, they did. Many of Florence’s most beautiful paintings and sculptures were produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. A: That’s why I am going there. B: Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists who come to see the art galleries, churches and museums. A: And I am going to see the Uffizi Palace. I am told that it is the most famous art gallery in the city. B: May you have a nice stay there!
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A: I haven’t seen you for a long time. Where have you been to?
B: I have been to Barcelona. A: I have never heard of this city. Tell me more about it. B: Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain. A: Where is it in Spain? B: It is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of the Spanish capital, Madrid. A: Are there any landmarks in the city? B: Yes, there are. One of the Barcelona’s most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia. A: Who was it designed? B: It was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. A: How long did Gaudi work on the project? B: He worked on it from 1882 until his death in 1926. A: Did he live to see it finished? B: No, he didn’t. The church hadn’t been finished when he died.
A: What a pity!

Period 5 Speaking—Pronunciation and everyday English

■Goals
● To learn about tag questions ● To role-play a conversation

■Procedures

Step 1: Learning about Tag Questions A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini-question. The whole sentence is a "tag question", and the mini-question at the end is called a "question tag". We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for confirmation. They mean something like: "Am I right?" or "Do you agree?" They are very common in English. The basic structure is:

+

-

Positive statement, negative tag?

-

+

Negative statement, positive tag?

Look at these examples with positive statements:

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positive statement [+]

negative tag [-]

notes:

main subject auxiliary
verb

personal pronoun auxiliary not (same as subject)

You are

coming,

are

n't you?

We

have

finished,

have

n't we?

You do

like

coffee, do

n't you?

You

like

coffee, do

n't you?

You (do) like...

They will

help,

wo

n't they?

won't = will not

I

can

come,

can

't I?

We

must

go,

must

n't we?

He

should try

harder, should n't he?

You

are

English, are

John

was

there, was

Look at these examples with negative statements:

negative statement [-]

n't you? n't he?

no auxiliary for main verb be present & past

positive tag [+]

subject auxiliary

main verb

auxiliary

personal pronoun (same as subject)

It

is

n't raining,

is

it?

We

have never seen

that,

have

we?

You

do

n't

like

coffee,

do

you?

They

will

not

help,

will

they?

They

wo

n't

report

us,

will

they?

I

can never

do

it right, can

I?

We

must

n't

tell

her,

must

we?

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He should n't

drive

so fast, should

he?

You

are

n't English, are

you?

John

was

Some special cases:

I am right, aren't I?

not there,

was

he?

aren't I (not amn't I)

You have to go, don't you?

you (do) have to go...

I have been answering, haven't I?

use first auxiliary

Nothing came in the post, did it?

treat statements with nothing, nobody etc like negative statements

Let's go, shall we?

let's = let us

He'd better do it, hadn't he?

he had better (no auxiliary)

Here are some mixed examples: But you don't really love her, do you? This will work, won't it? Well, I couldn't help it, could I? But you'll tell me if she calls, won't you? We'd never have known, would we? The weather's bad, isn't it? You won't be late, will you? Nobody knows, do they? Notice that we often use tag questions to ask for information or help, starting with a negative statement. This is quite a friendly/polite way of making a request. For example, instead of saying "Where is the police station?" (not very polite), or "Do you know where the police station is?" (slightly more polite), we could say: "You wouldn't know where the police station is, would you?" Here are some more examples: You don't know of any good jobs, do you? You couldn't help me with my homework, could you? You haven't got $10 to lend me, have you?

Intonation

We can change the meaning of a tag question with the musical pitch of our voice. With rising intonation, it sounds like a real question. But if our intonation falls, it sounds more like a statement that doesn't require a real answer:

intonation

You don't know where my wallet is, do you? / rising real question

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It's a beatiful view,

isn't it? \ falling not a real question

Answers to tag questions

How do we answer a tag question? Often, we just say Yes or No. Sometimes we may repeat the tag and reverse it (..., do they? Yes, they do). Be very careful about answering tag questions. In some languages, an opposite system of answering is used, and non-native English speakers sometimes answer in the wrong way. This can lead to a lot of confusion! For example, everyone knows that snow is white. Look at these questions, and the correct answers:

tag question

correct answer

Snow is white, isn't it?

Yes (it is).

Snow isn't white, is it?

Yes it is!

Snow is black, isn't it?

No it isn't!

Snow isn't black, is it?

No (it isn't).

the answer is the same in both cases because snow IS WHITE!
the answer is the same in both cases because snow IS NOT BLACK!

but notice the change of stress when the answerer does not agree with the questioner

In some languages, people answer a question like "Snow isn't black, is it?" with "Yes" (meaning "Yes, I agree with you"). This is the wrong answer in English! Here are some more examples, with correct answers: The moon goes round the earth, doesn't it? Yes, it does. The earth is bigger than the moon, isn't it? Yes. The earth is bigger than the sun, isn't it? No, it isn't! Asian people don't like rice, do they? Yes, they do! Elephants live in Europe, don't they? No, they don't! Men don't have babies, do they? No. The English alphabet doesn't have 40 letters, does it? No, it doesn't.

Question tags with imperatives

Sometimes we use question tags with imperatives (invitations, orders), but the sentence remains an imperative and does not require a direct answer. We use won't for invitations. We use can, can't, will, would for orders.

imperative + question tag notes:

invitation Take a seat, won't you?

polite

Help me, can you?

quite friendly

order

Help me, can't you?

quite friendly (some irritation?)

Close the door, would you? quite polite

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Do it now, will you?

less polite

Don't forget, will you?

with negative imperatives only will is possible

Same-way question tags

Although the basic structure of tag questions is positive-negative or negative-positive, it is

sometime possible to use a positive-positive or negative-negative structure. We use same-way

question tags to express interest, surprise, anger etc, and not to make real questions.

So you're having a baby, are you? That's wonderful!

?

She wants to marry him, does she? Some chance!

?

So you think that's amusing, do you? Think again.

Negative-negative tag questions usually sound rather hostile:

?

So you don't like my looks, don't you?

Step 2: Role-play a conversation about where you live

A: Where are you from?

B: I am from Taiyuan.

A: You are from Shanxi, aren’t you?

B: Yes, I am. I love my special part of Taiyuan, the Nan Cheng Part, what some people call “old

Taiyuan”and what I call home.

A: What is it like?

B: Dating from the Tang Dynasty, old Taiyuan is arguably the most artistically and architecturally

attractive capital city in the country.

A: Are there any places of interest on the street where you live?

B: On the street where I live, you can see two towers called Double Towers.

A: I know they are the famous symbols of Taiyuan.

B: Down the road, you will come to Clothing Town, the most famous shopping center in Taiyuan.

Here you can find varieties of clothing you like.

A: They say that Taiyuan is the world’s biggest open-air museum and not even residents, let alone

tourists, ever get the chance to see every temple (more than 350 of them), every tower, every

statue, or every historic street within a lifetime.

B: You are absolutely right.

A: When is the best time to visit Taiyuan?

B: The best time to enjoy the neighborhood is early morning. The sounds and smells are

quintessentially Taiyuan. The memories linger long after one has left the city. The incessant

yelling (a-o-o-oh! is a particularly favorite cry) and friendly insults of the trades people as they set

up their market stalls along the streets, mammas calling down the corridor to their children as they

head off to school, and young men on parked scooters greeting each other as if they hadn't seen

each other for years, accompanied by sings of birds in the trees. Ah, what heaven? Everybody at

this hour looks incredibly happy.

A: What about the city later on in the day?

B: Later on in the day, the streets and shops start to fill up. Locals gather for meals at the

restaurants, standing around in groups engaged in deep, intense conversation. After meals, the

chatting continues on the pavement, totally oblivious to the traffic, to other pedestrians (normally

tourists) trying to get through and to anything that might possibly interrupt the subject in hand.

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A: It seems to me that Taiyuan people are so intent at interacting with each other that they are able to ignore the millions of tourists that invade their city every year. They are the only people on earth who are as passionate about talking as they are about eating and making love. B: You are correct in saying that. Taiyuan people know how to live. I started to learn this when I came to live in Taiyuan as a child in 1953. Nearly half a century later, I am still learning.
Period 6 CULTURAL CORNER—The European Union
■Goals
● To read about The European Union
■Procedures
Step 1: Before you read Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling. Step 2: While you read Cut/ the sentences into thought groups, blacken the predicates, underline the useful expressions and darken the connectives. Step 3: After you read Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. You may make sentences with these expressions.
Useful expressions from The European Union the European Union, an organization of European countries, be governed in different ways, In the Union Kingdom, for example, the head of state, on the other hand, send representatives to…, the European Parliament, have some control over…, the idea of …, begin in the 1950s, little by little, during the second half of the twentieth century, by the year 2000, belong to…, in 2004, increase to 25 members, become members, the expanded European Union, have a population of more than half a billion people, twice as big as the population of the Union States
Period 7 TASK—Preparing a fact file on a region of China
■Goals
● To learn to make a file
■Procedures
Step 1: Surfing the Internet for related information Step 2: Making a poster display of your fact file
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Shanxi
Shanxi is a northern province of the People's Republic of China. Its one-character abbreviation is Jin (晋), after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period. Shanxi has an area of 150,000 km?and a population of 32.97 million. Shanxi's name literally means "mountains' west", which refers to the province's location west of the Taihang Mountains. Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north. The capital of Shanxi is Taiyuan. History Shanxi was the location of the powerful state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC - 403 BC), which underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States Period (403 BC - 221 BC). By 221 BC all of these states had fallen to the state of Qin, which established the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). The Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) ruled Shanxi as the province (zhou) of Bingzhou (并州 Bìng Zhōu). During the barbarian invasions of the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304 - 439, Shanxi was hotly disputed along with the rest of North China, and present-day Datong served for a time as the capital of the Northern Wei (386 - 534), a Xianbei kingdom that went on to rule nearly all of North China. During the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) and after, the area was called Hédōng (河東), or "east of the (Yellow) river". During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907 - 960) Shanxi came under the Northern Han, the only one of the ten kingdoms in North China. Shanxi was formally established with its present name and approximate borders by the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644). For centuries Shanxi was a center of trade and banking, and the term "Shanxi merchant" (晋商) was once synonymous with wealth; the well-preserved city of Pingyao, in Shanxi, also shows many signs of its former dominance as a center of trade and banking. In modern times, however, Shanxi has fared far less well. Today it depends on coal and is one of the poorer provinces (by both GDP and GDP per capita) of China. Geography Shanxi is located on a plateau, which is in turn made up of higher ground to the east (Taihang mountains) and the west (Lüliang mountains), and a series of valleys in the center through which the Fen River flows. The highest peak is Mount Wutai (Wutai Shan) at an altitude of 3058 m. The Fen and Qin rivers, tributaries of Huang He (or the Yellow River), drain much of the province; the
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north is drained by tributaries of the Hai River, such as Sanggan and Hutuo rivers. Shanxi has a continental monsoon climate, and is rather arid. Annual precipitation averages around 350-700 mm. There is very little precipitation in winter and spring. Economy Shanxi depends mostly on agriculture, mainly the cultivation of wheat, but also corn and sorghum. Shanxi is very rich in natural resources, including coal and bauxite. Shanxi has, in fact, one third of China's coal, and this has made Shanxi a leading producer of coal within China. Industry in Shanxi is mostly centered on coal, power generation, metal refining, and other heavy industries. In 2003, Shanxi had a gross domestic product of 245.7 billion RMB, and a per capita income of 7468 RMB. By market exchange rates, these convert to US$29.6 billion and US$990 respectively. Demographics The population is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Hui Chinese, Mongols, and Manchus. Culture People in most regions of Shanxi speak dialects of Jin, a subdivision of Chinese. People in the southwest speak dialects of Mandarin. (Jin is sometimes classified as a subdivision of Mandarin. For more information, see Chinese spoken language.) Vinegar is a very important part of Shanxi cuisine. Popular forms of traditional entertainment include Shanxi Opera (Jinju), Puju, Beilu Bangzi, Shangdang Bangzi and Shanxi Yangge.
Tourism
In addition to the major cities there are also the following sights:
Ancient City of Pingyao is a town and a World Heritage Site near Taiyuan noted for its preservation of many features of northern Han Chinese culture, architecture, and way of life during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Yungang Grottoes, a World Heritage Site in Datong consist of 252 caves noted for their collection of 5th and 6th century Buddhist cave art. Mount Wutai (Wutai Shan) is the highest point in the province. It is known as the residence of the bodhisattva Manjusri, and as a result is also a major Buddhist pilgrimage destination, with many temples and natural sights. Mount Hengshan (Heng Shan), in Hunyuan County, is one of the Wu Yue (Five Great Peaks) of China, and is also a major Taoist site. Dazhai is a village in Xiyang County. Situated in hilly, difficult terrain, it was a holy site during the Cultural Revolution, when it was set out to the entire nation as exemplary of the hardiness of the proletariat, especially peasants.
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