中考英语语法讲解资料及模拟第 1 讲：名词
第 1 讲：名词 名词当然是大家都很熟悉的了，我们吃的 food，喝的 drinks，穿的 clothes 都是名词。It is easy, right? 但是你可能被 名词的单复数变化、名词作定语以及名词所有格等问题搞得糊里糊涂的，到底该怎么用呢？OK,follow me。 First, 名词复数的特殊变化。 普通名词的复数我们知道是直接加-s 或 -es，可是偏偏有一些名词不听话，变化不规则。这些小调皮是： a. class, box, watch, brush 等词以 s, x, ch, sh, 结尾，复数要加-es； b. story, factory 等以"辅音字母+y"结尾的词复数要先将-y 变成-i 再加-es； c. knife, wife, life 等以-f 或-fe 结尾的词一般先将-f 或-fe 变为-v, 再加-es； d. 以-o 结尾的名词，一般来说，末尾是"元音字母+o" 的词加-s，我们学过的有 radio,zoo。末尾是"辅音字母+o" 的词，变复数加-es。如：tomato, hero, potato，当然其中的 piano 和 photo，又是一个例外，他们的结尾只能加-s。 e. child（children）, foot（feet）, tooth（teeth）, mouse（mice）, man（men ）, woman（women ）等词的复数变 化全不遵循规则。 注意：与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词，其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。如：an Englishman，two Englishmen. 但 German 不是合成词，故复数形式为 Germans； f. deer，sheep 等词更是懒得可以，竟然单复数同形。好记好记。 people，police，cattle 等词，以单数形式出现，但 实为复数，所以它们的谓语当然也是复数形式，这就是集体名词。the English，the French，the Chinese 等名词表示 国民总称时，也作复数用。 注意： maths， politics， physics 等学科名词,虽然以-s 结尾， 仍为不可数名词。 还有 theUnited States(美国） the United ， Nations（联合国）等应视为单数。 别奇怪，名词有时也可以作定语的。它作定语时一般用单数，但也有以下例外。 a. man, woman 等作定语时，它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定。如：men 两百棵树。 哇！这些问题好复杂，我好想轻松一下。那我们就轻轻松松地面对名词所有格问题。 这里面内容可谓少之又少，可也不能小视呦。 名词所有格： 表示“……的”通常是在名词的后面加-s，如：Children's day，father's shoes。但以-s 结尾的名词因为已经有 s 了，只 需加 ' 就 OK 了。如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，.则表示“分别有”。.如：John's and Mary's room（约翰和玛丽 各有一间，共两间）；两个名词并列，只有一个's，则表示"共有"。如：John and Mary's room（约翰和玛丽共有一间）。 还有些无生命名词的所属要用介词 of 来帮助一下，如：a map of China，the end of this term。 好，名词部分我们已经学完，It's a piece of cake? 接下来到了我们趁热打铁的时间了， Are you ready? 练习： 1. All the _____teachers and______students are having a meeting there. A. women …girls A. Jack's aunt's A. ten-year-old A. sheeps A. her grandmother A. two- storey house B. women… girl B. Jack's aunt B. ten-years-old B. deers B. her grandmother's B. house of two storey C. woman…girls C. Jack aunt's C. ten-year-older C. horse C. her grandmothers' C. two-storeys house D. woman…girl D. aunt's of Jack D.ten-years-older D. cows D. that of her grandmother D. two storeys house 2. Mr Black is a friend of _________. 3. This toy was made by a ____ boy. 4. The farmer raised ten _________. 5. She looked at us sadly with her eyes as large as_________. 6. We have moved into a ________. workers， women teachers。 b. 数词+名词作定语时， 这个名词一般保留单数形式,中间加连字符。 a ten-mile walk 十里路， 如： two-hundred trees
7. The ______ was too much for the child to carry. A. box's steel A. the Teacher's Day A. he B. him B. box of a steel B. Teacher's Day C. his C. steel box C. a Teacher's Day D. her B. The window of the classroom D. The classroom's windows D. box of the steel D. Teachers' Day 8. We'll give our English teacher a card for _________. 9. Li Ping met an old friend of _______on a train yesterday. 10. _________are big and bright. A. The classroom window C. The windows of the classroom 实战： 1. Don't worry. Your son will come back in ______hour. A. a A. you A. 香蕉 A. December 5. A: Must I leave now? A. needn't A. on A. few A. gone, went A. tell A. lend, borrow A. can't rain A. where does he study A. How often A. No, thanks A. to stop to have B. mustnt B. of B. a few B. been, went B. say B. lend, lend B. won't rain B. he studies where B. How long B. Yes, please. B. stop having B. an B. your B. 大白菜 B. November C. the C. Lucy C. 西红柿 C. September B: No, you _______. C. don't C. at C. little C. gone , have been C. talk C. borrow , lend C. don't rain C. where he studies C. how much C. Here it is. C. stop to have D. won't D. to D. a little D. been, have D. speak B: OK, I'm glad to _______it to you. D. borrow, borrow D. doesn't rian D. he where studies D. how many B: ______I'm full. D. I don't like. D. to stop having D. / D. yours D. 土豆 D. October 2. This nice blouse isn't mine. It's ______. 3. What's " potato" in Chinese? －It's _____ . 4. The ninth month of a year is _______.
6. We have a history lesson ______Wednesday afternoon. 7. Suan has made quite ______friends since she came to China. 8. A: Have you ever ______to the West Lake? 9. Do you ________English? 10. A: May I _______your ruler? 11. We'll go to the museum if it _______tomorrow. 12. Do you know ________? 13. A: _______do you go to see your grandparents? 14. A: Would you like another cup of orange? 15. You must be tired. Why not ________a rest? B: Once a month B: Yes, I ______there last winter.