高中英语必修2Unit 3 Computers讲义与练习

Unit 3
Part 1

Computers

Warming up,Pre-reading & Reading 课前预习
14._________ n.目的;目标;球门 Ⅱ.短语学习 1. __________ 共有,公有 2. ___________ 处理,应付 3. ____________解决问题 4._____________ (时间等的)过去 5. _____________ 与……共用,分享 6.. _____________ 向……提供…… 7. ____________ 充满,装满 8._____________ 从那时起 9.____________ 结果 10.__________ 如此……以致于

Ⅰ.重点单词 1.__________ vt. 计算 2. __________adj. 普遍的;通用的 3. __________vt. 简化 4. __________n. 操作员;接线员 5. _________adj. 合乎逻辑的;合情理的 6. __________n. 工艺;科技 7 __________n. 革命 8. ___________adj. 人造的;假的 9. ___________adj. 智能的;聪明的 10. __________vt. 解决;解答 11.________ adj. 私人的;个人的;亲自的 12.___________ n. 应用;申请 13.___________ vt.& vi. 探索;探究

Ⅰ.词形变化(旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1.calculate vt. 计算→_________n.计算器 2.universal adj.普遍的;宇宙的→_________n.宇宙→________adv.普遍地 3.simplify vt.简化→______adj.简单的→_________adv.简单地;仅仅 4.technology n. 工艺;技术→_____________ adj.科技的 5.revolution n. 革命→___________adj.革命的 6.intelligence n. 智能;聪明→___________adj.有才智的;聪明的 7.solve vt.解决→___________n.解答 8.reality n. 真实;事实→________adj.真实的,真正的→______adv.真实地;确实 9.personal adj.个人的;私人的→_________adv.亲自地→_________ n. 人 10.finance n. 金融;财经→__________adj.金融的 11.explore vt.& vi.探索;探究→________n. 探索;探究→ ________n. 探索者 12.happiness n. 幸福;快乐→__________adj. 高兴的;幸福的→______adj. 不开心的

Ⅱ.词语辨析(旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1.common/ordinary/usual/normal
? common 指“共有的, 公共的; 共同的; 常见的”。反 ? ?  义词为rare。common作“普通的”讲时可与ordinary ?  换用。如“普通人”也可以说成common people ? , 指没有什么特 ? ordinary 意为“普通的, 平淡无奇的” ?  别的地方 ? ? usual 意为“平常的 通常的 一向的”含惯例之意 ? normal 意为“正常的” 1 ?

? 活学活用:用 common,ordinary,usual,normal 填空 ①The problems are________ to all societies. ②In ________ with many young people,he prefers pop songs. ③He is in_______ clothes. ④We meet every day at the ________place. ⑤I took his temperature and it was __________

2.provide/supply/offer
? provide供给, 供应, 备办(所需物, 尤指生活必需 ? ?  品)。“向某人提供某物”可用provide sb.with ?  sth.,provide sth.for sb. ? ?offer常指主动提供, 要价。可接双宾语。“向某人 ? ?  提供某物”可用offer sb.sth.,offer sth.to ? supply供给, 供应(所需要或所要求之物)。“向某 ? ?  人提供某物”可用supply sb.withsth.;supply ?  sth.to sb. ?

? 活学活用:用 provide,supply,offer 的适当形式填空 ①They_______ food and clothes for the orphans(孤儿). ②They ________me a job in England, ③Electricity should ________ enough every month.
Ⅲ.重点词汇(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1.compare vt.比较,对照;比喻,比拟 vi.比得上,相比 compare...with...将……与……对比 compare...to...将……比作…… compared to/with 与……比起来(在句中作状语) by comparison 比较起来 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ①I______ my answers____将……与……对比) the teacher’s and found I had made a mistake. ②Shakespeare_________________(把世界比作舞台). ③______________与美国妇女比起来),women in China enjoy more freedom and a higher social position. ④_______(相比之下),we earned 10,000 yuan more last year. 2.anyhow adv. (1)(=anyway=in spite of that)无论如何,不管怎样,总之。用于 转移话题、结束谈话或回到原话题,可位于句首或句末。 (2)况且,更何况,再说,至少。用于对前面的话做补充,给出一 个令人信服的理由,此时 anyhow 常出现在句首或最后的分 句之首,而不出现在句末。

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(3)粗心地,随意地。作此意讲时,只能用 anyhow。 ? 语汇拓展 somehow adv. 由于某种未知的原因;不知怎么的;以某种方式;用某种方法;从某种角 度。如:Somehow he was afraid of her.不知怎的,他怕她。

? 活学活用:写出下列句中 anyhow 的意思 ①The water was cold but I took a shower anyhow. ②The work was done all anyhow. ③It may snow,but anyhow I will go to town.
3.totally adv.完全地;全部地;整个地 ? 语汇拓展 total adj. 总的;全部的;整个的 n.总数;合计 v.总数为;合 计为 in total 总共;总计 a total of 总数;总共(修饰名词复数时,谓语动词用复数) the total of...(谓语动词用单数) total up=add up 算出总数 total (up) to=add up to 总额为 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ①—What is __________(全部费用) these books? —It cost me _______总共) of 500 yuan. ②__________总共),it cost me 500 yuan. ③The cost ________(总计) 500 yuan.
Ⅳ.重点词组(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1.in common 共同(的);共用(的);共有(的) in common with...与……一起;和……一样 have sth.in common(with sb./sth.)与……有共同之处 have nothing in common 无共同之处 have little in common 几乎无共同之处 have a lot in common 有许多共同之处 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ①Don’t relate me to him.We______________根本不同). ②It’s not necessary to avoid talking about your relationship. ----it is ________(常识) already. ③I suddenly felt we ____________(有许多相似之处). ④____________(跟大多数年轻人一样) he loves pop music.

2.as a result 结果;因此 as a result of 由于;作为……的结果

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? 语汇拓展 with the result that...……结果 result in (=cause)导致;致使 result from (=be caused by) 起因于;因……而引起 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ①Sara wasn’t at school last week,______(结果) she missed an important test. ②Success________(来自于) hard work. ③He was ill.______因此),he didn’t go to school. ④________(由于) his illness,he didn’t go to school.

3.go by(时间)过去(=pass);从旁边经过;走过;依照 As years went by,I have been made smaller and smaller.随着 时间的流逝,我被做得越来越小。 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ①Many years _______(过去了) since we first met. ②The parade ________(经过) us. ③You should ________(照章办事) the rules.
Ⅴ.重点句子(旨在提供句子结构等所需材料) 1.Over time my memory has developed so much that,like an elephant,I never forget anything I have been told!(P18) 随着时间的流逝,我的记忆发展很大,像大象一样,我从不忘 记被告知的事情。 【点拨】 so...that...如此……以致于……具体用法: ...so+形容词/副词+that 从句 ...so+many/much/few/little+名词+that 从句 ...so+形容词+a/an+单数名词+that 从句
? 语汇拓展 (1)such...that...也表示“如此……以至于……”,常用结构为: ...such+a/an+(形容词)单数名词+ that 从句 ...such+(形容词)+名词复数/不可数名词+ that 从句 Mike is such an honest worker that we all believe in him.(=Mike is so honest a worker that we all believe in him.) 迈克是一个很诚实的工人,我们都很信任他。 (2)so 部分或 such 部分位于句首时,句子通常采用部分倒装结构, 即:系动词、助动词或情态动词提到主语的前面。 So clever was he that he was able to work out all the difficult problems. 他如此聪明以致能算出所有的难题。
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课时作业 Ⅰ .单词拼写(根据中文或首字母提示填入适当的单词) 1.A t_____ blind man can see nothing. 2.I have something p_____ to tell you. 3._______(不管怎样),I’ll see you tonight. 4.This machine has a _______(普遍的) use in the home. 5.These ideas will be_______(探讨) in more details in Chapter 6. 6.Life is not a problem to be solved but a______(现实) to be experienced. 7.Personal ______(金融)is required to be taught as part of the courses in universities. 8.He was trying to_______(解决)a crossword puzzle. 9.You must have a _______(目标) in your life. 10.You can improve your________(智力) by reading books. Mark:________ Date:________ Ⅱ .用所给的单词的适当形式填空 1.According to a recent research,dolphins are much more____ than other animals. (intelligence) 2.Mary dare not stay in a house alone in______darkness.(totally) 3.Most of the time,women are forced to make a _____ between family and career.(choose) 4.The mother was amazed by the little kid’s _______ idea.(create) 5._________ speaking,it’s worth all the efforts.(person) 6.This is a painting full of ________ and hope.(imagine) 7._________ arose about exactly how to spend the money.(disagree) 8.When you meet with some problems,calm down and deal with them _______.(logical) 9.Money doesn’t always bring _______(happy) 10.We haven’t found the _______ yet,but I’m sure we’re on the right track.(solve) Mark:________ Date:________ Ⅲ .选词填空 in common,solve the problem,go by,share...with,provide...with...,be filled with,from then on, as a result 1.He was late ________of the snow. 2.These books will _____ us______ all the informationweneed. 3._______ he refused to talk about it. 4.With the help of his friends,he finally __________
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5.As these years _______,he has become a famous star in China. 6.The new machines have a little________ with the old ones. 7.He would _______ his last pound_______me.
8.He_________horror at the bad news.

V.课文浓缩(语法填空) 1 history of computer began in 1642 in France. 2 was first built only as a calculating machine,and later as an Analytical Machine that could “think” 3 (logic) and produce an answer quicker than any person.Still later,the “universal machine” is built 4 (solve) mathematical problems, 5 made computer huge! 6 the years have gone by,computer has been made smaller,quicker 7 cleverer.Later,computers were connected by network and brought 8 common people’s homes to deal with information and help communication 9 people around the world.Since 10 birth,computer has always been designed to serve the human race. Mark:________ Date:________ Part 2

Learning about Language & Using Language

课前预习: Ⅱ .短语学习 Ⅰ .重点单词 1.________ 在某种程度上 1._______ n.病毒 2.__________ 在……的帮助下 2._______ n. 信号 vt.& vi. 发信号 3.___________处理;安排;对付 3_______ n. 类型 vt.& vi. 打字 4.__________ 看守;监视 4.______ n. 教练 5.__________ 赢得第一名 5.________vi. 出现;发生 6.____________一种新型的 6.________adj. 电子的 7.___________下定决心做某事 7.________ n. 外观;外貌;出现 8.___________组成;构成;编造 8._______ n. 性格;特点 9.____________毕竟;终究 Ⅰ .词形变化(旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1.electronic adj.电子的→________ n. 电子学 2.appear vi.出现→__________ n. 外貌;出现 3.character n.性格;特点→__________ n. 特征 4.create vt. 创造→______adj.有创造性的_________n.创造性;创造力 5.able adj. 能够的;有能力的→______adj.不能的;无能的→_______ n.能力
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Ⅱ .词语辨析(旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1.symbol/sign/signal/mark
? symbol指作象征或表达某种深邃意蕴的特殊事物 ? ? sign普通用词, 指人们公认的事物的记号, 也可指某 ?  种情况的征兆 。 ? signal 指为某一目的而有意发出的信号 ? ? mark普通用词, 含义广泛。既可指为便于辨认而有 ? ?  意做的标记, 又可指自然形成的标记或有别于其 ?  他事物的特征 ?

? 活学活用:用 symbol,sign,signal,mark 的适当形式填空 ① Red cross is a______ for hospital. ② A red light is usually a ______of danger. ③ Make a______ where you don’t understand. ④ Are dark clouds a ______ of rain? ⑤ A dove(鸽子) is a _______ for peace.
2.arise/arouse/rise/raise
? arise是不及物动词, 在现代英语中主要用于借喻, ?  指“出现, 发生, 产生” ? ?arouse是及物动词, 指“唤醒, 激起” , 后常跟抽象名词 ? rise 是不及物动词 , 使用范围较广 , 指“升起, 上升, ? ?  增长” , 也可指“起立, 起床, 地位升高”等 ? ? raise是及物动词, 用在句中, 后面需跟宾语。一般 ? ?  指“升起, 举起, 增加(程度、价格等);提高(音量); ?  提出; 种植(农作物);养育; 抚育(子女)” ?

? 活学活用:用 arise,arouse,rise,raise 的适当形式填空 ①The river is _______ after the rain. ②He ______his hand in the hope of being asked. ③His strange behaviour ______ our suspicions. ④New problems _______ every day.

3.deal with/ do with deal with 处理;对付;相处;论述;涉及。deal 为不及物动词,deal with 常与 how 连用。 do with 处理;对付;相处。do 为及物动词,do with 则常与 what 连用。 This book mainly deals with difficult points in the study of English grammar. 这本书主要论述了学习英语语法的难点。 I don’t know what to do with/ how to deal with the situation. 我不知道如何处理现在的局势。 ? 活学活用:用 deal with 和 do with 的适当形式填空 ① I don’t know what to _____ the waste materials.
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② There are too many difficulties for us to ______.We really don’t know what to do. ③ The books______ Asian problems sell well in colleges. ④ How did you _____matters of this sort? ⑤ Last summer I took a course on what to _____ poisonous gases. Ⅲ .重点词汇(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1.signal vi.& vt.发信号 n.信号 a danger/warning/distress signal 危险/警告/遇难信号 traffic signals 交通信号灯 a stop signal 停车信号 signal(to) sb.to do sth.示意某人做某事 signal to sb.向某人示意 signal(sb.) that...示意…… ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ① All I get is________(忙音) whenever I dial his number. ② He _________(示意服务员) for the bill. ③ She _______(示意他) follow her. 2.type n.类型,种类,样式 v.打字 a rare blood type 罕见的血型 different racial types 不同的人种 type up 打印出来 ? 活学活用:完成句子 ① She mixes with _______people. 她和各种类型的人打交道。 ② How fast can you____? 你打字有多快? ③ This letter needs _____again. 这封信需要再打一遍。 3.arise(arose,arisen) v.出现;发生 arise from...由……而引起;从……中产生 I thought it would be easy,but a lot of problems have arisen. 我本来想事情很容易,但是出现了许多问题。 A heavy mist arose from the lake. 湖面起了浓雾。 ? 活学活用:完成句子 ① Accidents _________carelessness. 事故由粗心大意引起。 ② He _______ his seat.
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他从座位上站起来。 Ⅳ .重点词组(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1.in a way 在某种程度上;从某一点上看 in the way 挡路;妨碍别人 in this way 以这种方法 all the way 从开始到现在;自始至终 in one way or another 以一种或另一种方式 in no way 一点也不;决不 on the way 在途中 on one’s way to... 在某人去……的途中;即将成为…… feel one’s way 摸索着前进 push one’s way 挤着前进 give way (to) 让步,屈服 by way of 经由;途经 by the way 顺便说一下 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ① You are quite right_______ (从某一方面来讲). ② It’s surprising that so many people should go abroad ______(途经) Hong Kong. ③ ______ (绝不) can we miss the chance that someone will be sent abroad for further education. ④ Our employer will not_______ (让步) our demands for higher wages. ⑤ Don’t stand _______(妨碍别人). 2.with the help of 在……的帮助下(也可用 with one’s help 表示) ? 语汇拓展 help sb.out 帮助某人渡过难关/摆脱困境 help sb.with sth./help sb.in doing sth.帮助某人做某事 help (to) do sth.帮着做某事 help oneself to 自用(食物);擅自取用 can’t help doing sth.禁不住做某事 cannot help but do sth.不得不做某事,只得做某事 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ① She______________ (不禁琢磨着)what he was thinking. ② She stopped smoking ______________(在……的帮助下)her family and friends. 3.watch over 看守;监视 watch for sth.盼望或等待某事物 watch out 小心;留神;注意(用于提醒、警示) watch out for sb./sth.警惕或注意某人/物 keep (a) watch on 监视 on the watch for 看守着……,监视着……
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? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ① They____________ (被看守着) by three policemen. ② She ____________(等待) her chance to speak. ③____________(注意)! There is a motorbike speeding here! ④__________(当心) the pickpockets! .重点句子(旨在提供句子结构等所需材料) 1.After all,with the help of my electronic brain which never forgets anything,using intelligence is what I’m all about!不管怎样,在我过目不忘的电子脑的帮助下,运用智 能就是我的一切。(P23) 【点拨】 which 在本句中引导限制性定语从句,what 在此是连接代词,引出一个表语 从句,what 在从句中作介词 about 的宾语。连接代词 what 表示“……的人(事)”,其引导 的名词性从句可作主语、 宾语或表语。 掌握 what-从句的关键是弄清 what 的“分身术”: 既在从句中充当主语、 宾语或表语,在 what 从句中又充当主句中的主语、 宾语或表语。 What he often keeps in mind is how to serve the people well. 他经常想的就是怎样为人民服好务。 How much you read is not very important.It is what you read that matters. 你读了多少不重要,重要的是你读了什么。 After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth,what our astronauts desire to do is walk in space. 杨利伟成功绕地球飞行后,我们的宇航员们所渴望做的是太空行走。 ? 活学活用:完成以下练习 ① A modern city has been set up in________was a wasteland ten years ago. ② Terrorists declared war on the United States,and war is _______they got. ③ Our kind teacher wanted to teach us _______ he knew about this lesson. ④ ______made the school proud was _____ more than 60% of the students had been admitted to key universities. 课时作业 Ⅰ .单词拼写(根据中文或首字母提示填入适当的单词) 1.Difficulties will _______(出现) as we do the work. 2.Do you know that football ________(教练) who is standing there? 3.We will soon arrive at the point where we can find all the knowledge of humankind on a computer _______(网络). 4.If you need some useful information,you may d______ it from your PC. 5.Her speech yesterday was a _______(信号) that her views have changed. 6.I like to read books on ________(电子的) music. 7.We should not judge a person by his a_______. 8.He is weak in health,but firm in _______(性格).
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Mark:________ Date:________ Ⅱ .用适当的介词、副词填空 1.We are good friends,so we have a lot____common ______ each other. 2.I didn’t know what they were talking about;______,let’s go back _____ my history. 3.We can share information ______others and we can talk _____each other. 4.Since _____,my friends and I have used computers to deal ______ information. 5.We have written a lot e-mails _____ the computer ______the past few years. 6.______the help of my teacher,I can make_____ new moves. 7.Instead ______ flying softly to earth I began to fall faster and faster ______ that I could not turn,dive,circle or dance. 8.Let us hope____ greater success in the_____Olympics! Mark:________ Date:________

Part 3

Grammar

现在完成时被动语态 1.构成:现在完成时被动语态由“has/have+been+及物动词的过去分词”构成。has/have 为助动词。 They haven’t been told the exciting news yet,have they? 他们还没有被告知这个令人激动的消息,对吗? (1)since then,since+从句,so far,by now,up till,now,recently,lately,already,yet 等常用于现 在完成时的句子中。 (2)ever,never,already,yet 等副词用于现在完成时的被动语态时,放在 has 或 have 之后。 2.现在完成时被动语态用法 (1)表示一个被动的动作发生在说话之前,强调对现在造成的影响和结果。 The door has been locked. 门已经被锁上了。 (2)表示一个被动的动作或状态发生在过去,持续到现在,并有可能持续下去,常与 for 或 since 引导的时间状语连用,或用于“How long...?”句型中。 How long has the machine been used? 这台机器使用多久了? 3.现在完成时被动语态应注意的几个地方 (1) 注意与一般过去时被动语态的区别。 一般过去时被动语态所表示的动作和状态与 现在没有联系,而现在完成时被动语态强调与现在的联系。
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The bridge was built last year. 这座桥是去年建的。 The bridge has been built. 这座桥已经建好了。 (2)注意特殊动词:borrow,finish,begin,buy,start,return,marry,open,join 等构成的被动 语态不能和表示一段时间的状语连用,否则要改换动词和状态。 How long has this book been bought?(F) How long ago was this book bought?(T) 但这类动词的否定句可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。 No books have been bought since last week. 课时作业 Ⅰ .用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空 1.Every possible way_______(use)to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear. 2.Both my brothers work at the power station that__________(set up)in my home town. 3.The silence of the library ________(break)only by the sound of pages being turned over. 4.—I ____________(tell)the sports meet might be put off. —Yes,it all depends on the weather. 5.________this bridge _________(finish)? 6.These flowers ___________(water),so you can go home. Ⅱ .用被动语态改写句子 1.He has thought of a way of solving the problem. ____________________________________________ 2.I have given him the book. _______________________________________ 3.We have bought a new personal computer. ______________________________________________ 4.The government has given more information on its website. ____________________________________________________

Mark:________ Date:________

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