2013届高考语法复习(十一) 名词和冠词

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2013 届高考语法复习(十一) 名词和冠词
名词篇
1. 名词的分类 1) 专有名词:指某人,某地,某机构等专有的名称,其首字母要大写。如 HongKong, China,Bill Clinton,Red Cross 2) 普通名词: 可数名词:个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如 student,book 集体名词:表示若干个体组成的集合体,如:family,school, group, people 不可数名词: 物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:cotton,air,tea 抽象名词:表示抽象概念,如 :work,happiness,news 2.名词的复数 可数名词有单、复数形式,其复数的构成规则如下: 1) 绝大多数在词尾加 s。如: book,books;bag,bags;cup,cups;face,faces.

2)以 ch,sh,s,x,o 结尾的名词加 es。如: watch,watches;brush,brushes;hero,heroes;class,classes; 下列以 o 结尾的词加 s 构成复数:piano , photo ,radio ,zoo, bamboo ,kilo 3 ) 以 辅 音 字 母 + y 结 尾 的 名 词 , 将 y 改 为 i , 再 加 es 。 例 如 : baby,babies;family,families; 以元音字母+y 结尾的名词,直接加 s。例如:boy,boys;key,keys 4) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词,先将 f 或 fe 改为 v,再加 es 构成复数形式,如: leaf,leaves; wife,wives.但有些以 f 结尾的名词,是在 f 后加 s 构成复数,常见的有: roof,chief,belief,gulf 等 。 个 别 的 两 种 方 式 都 可 以 ,

如: handkerchief,’s,handkerchieves 5)少数名词的复数形式是不规则的,要一一背记: man→men; woman→women; Englishman→Englishmen;foot→feet; tooth→teeth; child→children; mouse→mice
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Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish,means(注: fishes 表不同种类的鱼) 6)复合名词: A.含 man 或 woman 的复合名词,两部分都变为复数形式。如:two men teachers, four women doctors B.将复合名词中的主体名词变为复数形式,如: lookers-on 旁观者,editors-in-chief 总编辑, passers-by 过路人 C.如果没有主体名词,就在词尾后加 s。如: grown-ups 成年人,go-betweens 中间人 7)以复数形式出现的名词:trousers,glasses 眼镜,scales 天平,savings 储蓄, findings 调查结果, doings 行为, surroundings 环境, arms 武器, fireworks 火,remains 残余,thanks 感谢,riches 财富,ashes 灰烬 ,stairs 楼梯 8)有些名词在一定的词组中要用复数形式。例如: take pains 下功夫,made preparations 作准备,give regards to 问候 3..名词的所有格 1)名词的所有格一般用于有生命的名词。其构成多在词尾加上“’s”,如:Tom’s bike, Marx’s works 以 s 结尾的专有名词,在词尾后加“’”或“’s”。如:Engels’/Engels’s works 以 s 结尾的复数名词,只在词尾加“’”。如:students’ homework,a workers’ night school 一所工人夜校, 不以 s 结尾的复数名词, 仍在词尾加“’s”。 men’s 如: clothes 男士衣服 children’s books 儿童读物 2) 如果一个事物为两个人共有,只在后一个名词的词尾加“’s”,如果不是共有, 就要在两个名词的词尾分别加上“’s”。例如:Tom and Mike’s room 汤姆和迈克 合住的房间 Tom’s and Mike’s rooms 汤姆、迈克各自的房间 3) 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格后省去 shop,house 等名词。 如:the tailor’s 裁缝店,the barber’s 理发店,go to the doctor’s 上诊所, 4) 表示时间、距离、国家、城市等无生命的名词,可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”来 表示 所有格。如:today’s newspaper, half an hour’s rest, two weeks’ work, ten minutes′walk ,China’s population ,Shanghai’s industry
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5) 表示无生命的名词一般用 of 短语表示所有关系。如: the students of their school, the teachers of Grade 2 6) 表示所属物的名词前如果有不定冠词、数词、不定代词,常用“of+所有格” 来表示所属关系。例如: He is an old friend of my father’s. 强化练习 1._________from Beijing to London! A How long way it is C How long way is it B .What a long way is it D. What a long way it is This is a picture of Mary’s.

2.We’ve worked out the plan ,and now we must put it into________. A fact B .practice C .reality D deed

3.Electrcity , like other forms of ________ ,has greatly increased in price. A .pressure B .force C .strength D energy

4.That fellow is clever ; he has ___________. A. brain B. a brain C .the brain D .brains

5.Julie went to the ________ to buy a pair of shoes. A .shoes store B .shoe’s store C .shoe store D shoes’ store

6.Those ______ took lots of ______ in the Summer Palace. A Germen; photoes C Germans; photos B .Germen; photos D .Germans; photoes

7.All possible means __________ to save the hero. A .has tried B .have tried C has been tried D .have been tried

8.——Whose car is it ? ——It’s________. A. Tom and Mary C .Tom’s and Mary 9.There are 5____ in th fields. A heads of cattles
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B Tom’s and Mary’s D. Tom and Mary’s

B .heads of cattle
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C .head of cattles

D .head of cattle

10.He is the very thief the police ________ looking for . A.is B.are C.has D.have

11.All but Jack __________ here just now . A.is B.are C.was D.were

12.He knows almost everything .So we say he is a man of many _________. A.knowleges B.presents C.gifts D.rewards

13.Carelessness is the usual __________ of fire. A.way B.excuse C.cause D.reason

14.The girl is quite ________to her mother now . A.a help B.helps C.help D.helpness

15._______is coming to give us a lecture . A.A manager and an expert C.Manager and expert B.A manager and expert D.Manager and an expert

16.Most of the bridges over the river are made of __________. A.stone B.the stone C.a stone D.the stones

17.If you hurt her _________ ,you should apologize. A.feelings B.feel C.feels D.feeling

18.I’ll go and call at __________ right after school. A.the doctor B.the Smiths C.Smith D.my uncle’s

19.The shop will be closed A.repairs B.a repair

during_________. C.repair D.repairing

20.The? ________we saw yesterday come out to the farm once in a while. ? A.mouse B.deer C.dog D.cow

21.My brother didn’t find army life to his __________. A.like B.taste C.quality D.favour

22.Though they hadn’t met for long ,he recognized her ___________. A.voice B.noise C.sound D.laughter

23.Learning that they were to have a picnic,the children were in _______.
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A.the high spirit C.a high spirit

B.high spirits D.high spirit

24.After _______ silence ,they began to write letters to each other . A.three-year B.a s?three-year C.three years D.three years

25.If these trousers are too big ,buy a smaller__________. A.copy B.pair C.piece D.set

26.That daughter of Jack’s is ______. A.a good fun B.good runs C.good fun D.good funny

27._______will make a trip around the world during the coming Christmas A.The Evenses’ B.The Evens’ C.The Evenses D.The Evens

28.He is one of the most successful_______ in the city. A.newspaper’s writer C.nesapapers’ writer 29.——Where is your brother? ——At_____. A.Mr Green’s B.Greens C.the Mr Green’s D.the Greens B.newspaper writers D.newspaper writer

30.——Are you _______ ,Mr Black? ——Yes ,I speak______. A.English ; the English language C.an Englishman; B.the English ; English D.an English ; English

on English language

31. Although it is not our normal _______ to give credit in our shop, this time I think we should consider the matter more closely. A.habit B.practice C.action D.intention

32.Any help from you will be greatly appreciated. Please give me a reply at your earliest . C.consideration D.convenience

A.interruption B.instruction

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33. Many football fans attached great importance to the two matches, because China needed to beat Iran to ensure ________ for the Asian Cup semi-finals. A. outcome B. conservation C. qualification D. occupation

34.It is too bad for someone in such a high _______ in the government to behave badly in public. A. position B. situation C. profession D. condition

35.This research attracted wide______ coverage and BBC television’s Tomorrow’s World had a special programme about it last week. A. message B. information C. media D. data

36.The campaign is trying to get the _____ across to young people that drugs are dangerous. A.lesson B.topic C.message D.information

37.The traffic slowed down because of the heavy snow in Yushu county, presenting a new __________ to the recovery from the earthquake. A. suffering B. disaster C. challenge D. damage .

38.The present financial crisis has put the world economy in a difficult A. occasion B. case C. background D. situation

39.The millionaire passed away, leaving his children with a large ________. A.fortune B.luck C.money D.amount

40.Some cars are equipped with GPS for people easily to find the _________ of their destination. A.location B.place C.area D.position

.冠 词 篇 一、a 与 one 的对比 1. 尽管 a 和 one 这两个在意义上有些相似,但它们几乎不能互换使用。
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2. 在连续记数时,习惯上,用 one 而不用 a。 3. 在名词前使用 one 往往表示数量上的对比。 4. 用在某些固定词组中。 e.g. all of a sudden(突然),as a matter of fact(事实上),in a hurry,in a word, do sb. a favour,pay a visit to,a hand of(少量的),a length of(一根、一段), a variety of(种种),a depth of(深度为),an article of(一件),a total of(总 共),an average of(平均),one by one,one after another,one day 二、不定冠词的基本用法 1. 具有泛指的概念,表示“一类”或“其中的一个”。 2. 初次提到某人或某物。 3. 速度、比率、价格等,其意义相等于 one 或 every。 4. 用在某些物质名词前,该物质名词便具体化了。 a coffee, a heavy rain 5. 用在某些抽象名词前,该抽象名词前便具体化了。 He has a knowledge of chemistry. The get-together was a great success. 6. 用在专有名词前,表示类似的一个或某一个。 He is a Kong Fansen. A Mrs Smith wishes to speak to you. 7. 表示“同一个”的意思。 The two boys are of an age. These umbrellas are of a (=the same) colour and size. 8. 不定冠词的特殊位置:how/so/as/too+形容词+不定冠词+名词 so kind a man = such a kind man too difficult a book 三、定冠词的主要用法 1. 表示特指和第二次提到的人或物。 2. 表示世界上独一无二的事物。 3. 用在序数词、形容词最高级前面。 4. 用在江河湖海、山脉、群岛、海峡、沙漠等地理名词前。 5. 用在形容词或过去分词前表示一类人。 6. 用在表示国家和民族的形容词前表示泛指该国的人民。 7. 用在姓氏的复数前,表示该夫妇俩或全家人。 8. 乐器、通讯设备前一定要加定冠词。 9. 用于某些缩略词之前。 the PRC 10. 用在表示发明物的单数可数名词之前。 11. 固定搭配。 in the morning on the other hand 四、不用冠词的几种情况 1. 季节、节日、星期、三餐等之前,一般不加冠词。 the Spring Festival (除外) 2. 名词前有物主代词、指示代词、不定代词、名词所有格等限定词修饰时,一 般不加冠词。 3. 专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词、人名、地名等名词前,一般不加。 4. 球类、棋类、学科等名称前,一般不加冠词。 5. 称呼、头衔、职务等表示抽象性质的名词前,不加冠词。 6. 在与 by 连用交通工具名称前不加冠词。] 7. 在 turn,go(变成、成为)变成后面的名词做短语时,名词前不加冠词。但
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become 后面的名词前一定要加冠词。 8. 在一个以“普通名词+as”所引导的让步状语从句中,该普通名词前不加冠词。 9. 泛指复数名词前不用冠词。 10. 固定搭配。 in debt,in good (bad) health,in good condition,in great demand,in great need of, in time of danger,in office(就职),in honour of,in trouble (difficulty),in favour of,with anger,in general,in size,in character(在性格上),in sight,in (out of) order,on business,on holiday, on leave,on watch,on fire,heart and soul,knife and fork,at sea,husband and wife,brother and sister,from morning till night,on horseback 五、特殊情况 1. 部分词组中有冠词和没有冠词其含义不同。一般说来,名词前 无冠词,则表示抽象意义;名词前有冠词,则表示具体意义。 out of problem (不成问题) out of the problem , (不可能) take place, , take the place of,in hospital,in the hospital,at table,at the table,in front of,in the front of, three of us,the three of us,on earth,on the earth,of age(成年),of an age(同 岁数),lose colour(脸色苍白),lose the colour(褪色), 2. 有些诉组中用定冠词 the 还是不定冠词 a ,意义不同。 a number of the number of 3. 注意当单数可数名词被 so、as、how、too 等词修饰时,冠词的位置要放在形 容词后面。比较 such。 4. 注意习惯用法。在某些词组、成语中,名词前不用冠词。 六、表示类别的三种情况 1. 定冠词+单数可数名词(用特指的那一类事物代表一类事物)。 2. 不定冠词+单数可数名词(用“任意一个”“某一个”所具有的特性、特征表示一 类事物)。 3. 可数名词复数或不可数名词,指“类别”。(考虑到同一类中的各个情况)。 强化练习 1. Jumping out of ________ airplane at ten thousand feet is quite ________ exciting experience. (2002 全国高考题) A./; the B./; an C.an; an D.the; the 2. There’s ________ dictionary on ________ desk by your side. (2003 北京春季高考) A.a; the B.a; a C.the; a D.the; the 3. An accident happened at ________ crossroads a few meters away from ________ bank. (2003 上海春季高考题) A.a; a B./; a C./; the D.the; / 4.The warmth of ________ sweater will of course be determined by the sort of ________ wool used. A.the; the B.the; / C./; the D./; / 5.Mr.Li will give us ________ talk.________ talk will begin at 8:00. A.a; The B.the; A C./; / D.a; A 6.The sun gives us ________ heat and ________ light. A.the; the B.a; a C.a; the D./; / 7.—What do you need in dinner?
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—I need ________. A.a knife and a fork B.a knife and fork C.the knife and fork D.the knife and the fork 8.________ Mrs.Smith is waiting for you in your office. A.The B.A C.One D./ 9.She’s on ________ People’s Daily. A.the B.an C.a D./ 10._____ Einsteins could not pay for _____ advanced education that young Albert needed. A.The; the B.A; a C.An; the D.The; an 11.She is ________ newcomer to ________ chemistry but she has already made some important discoveries. A.the; the B.the; a C.a; / D.a; the 12.—Where is Jack? —I think he is still in ________ bed,but he might be in ________ bathroom. A./; / B.the; the C.the; / D./; the 13.I don’t like talking on ________ telephone; I prefer writing ________ letters. A.a; the B.a; / C.the; the D.the; / 14.Many people are still in ________ habit of writing silly things in ________ public places. A.the; the B./; / C.the; / D./; the 15.—If you don’t like the red coat,take the blue one. —OK,but do you have ________ size in blue? This one is a bit tight for me. A.a big B.a bigger C.the big D.the bigger 16.I heard somebody playing ________ piano in ________ next room. A.a; a B.the; the C.a; the D.the; an 17.________ Pacific Ocean is ________ largest of all. A.the; a B./; the C.the; the D.a; / 18.Great changes have taken place in ________ 1990’s. A./ B.a C.the D.an 19.Wouldn’t it be ____ wonderful world if all nations lived in _____ peace with one another? A.a; / B.the; / C.a; the D.the; the 20.Alexander Graham Bell invented ________ telephone in 1876. A./ B.a C.the D.one 21.In 1864, Lincoln was elected _____ President of ____ United States for the second time. A.the; the B.a; a C./; the D./; / 22.John is ________ university student. A./ B.any C.a D.an 23.The table is made of ________. A.a wood B.some wood C.the wood D.wood 24.We are going to learn ________ next week. A.Twelfth Lesson B.The Twelfth Lesson
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C.Twelve Lesson D.The Twelve Lesson 25.—I’d like ________ information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well,you could have ________ word with the manager. He might be helpful. A.some; a B.an; some C.some; some D.an; a 26.Paper money was in _______ use in China when Marco Polo visited the country in ______ thirteenth century. A.the; / B.the; the C./; the D./; / 27.Most animals have little connection with ________ animals of ________ different kind unless they kill them for food. A.the; a B./; a C.the; the D./; the 28.Alice is fond of playing _____ piano while Henry is interested in listening to _____ music. A./; the B./; / C.the; / D.the; the 29.Oh,John.________ you gave us! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise D.What pleasant surprise 30.________ terrible weather we’ve been having these days! A.How a B.What a C.How D.What 31.Many people agree that _____ knowledge of English is a must in ____ international trade today. A.a; / B.the; an C.the; the D./; the 32.Beyond ________ stars,the astronaut saw nothing but ________ space. A.the; / B./; the C./; / D.the; the 33.—Have you seen ________ pen? I left it here this morning. —Is it ________ black one? I think I saw it some where. A.a; the B.the; the C.a; a D.the; a 34.After watching ________ TV,she played ________ violin for an hour. A./; / B.the; the C.the; / D./; the 35.—Are you sure to help me find ________ bed for my new house? —Sure,but not now. I’m heading for ________ bed and a good sleep. A.a; / B.a; a C.the; a D.the; / 36.Charlie Chaplin was considered one of the greatest actors in ___ history of ___ cinema. A./; / B.a; the C.the; the D.the; a 37.—What about ________ book? —It’s too difficult ________ book. A.a; a B.a; the C.the; the D.the; a 38.Towards ________ evening ________ cold rain began to fall. A.an; the B.the; a C.the; / D./; a 39.She always plays ________ football after ________ school. A.a; the B.the; the C./; a D./; / 40._____ wheel is thought to be _____ invention of _____ first importance in human history. A.A; the; the B.The; an; the C.A; an; the D.A; an;
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