2016届高考英语一轮复习《非谓语动词不定式》专项练习

非谓语动词(不定式) 一. 不定式形式与构成(以 make 为例) 语态 时态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行 主动语态 to make to be making to have made to have been making to have been made 被动语态 to be made 1. 动词不定式的否定形 式是在不定式前面加 not(never)构成, 例如:not to go home 2.不定式前面有时可加某些疑问词,如 who, what, which, when, how, why, 构成不定式 短 what to do next, how to get there, where to get the books 3.动词不定式可以有自己的逻辑主语,构成 for the young men to study English, for us to look for a job. 二.动词不定式的用法 1. 作主语 ①.动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 To make a plan for our future is important. ②.动词不定式作主语时,句子往往出现 头重脚轻,为了保持句子平衡,用 it 作形式主语,放在 谓语动词前面。 例:It will take a whole day to get there by car. It is impossible for me to finish the work in a week. 2. 作表语 表语在系动词之后,说明或解释主语的内容,也表示将来的动作。 例:1. His plan is to spend a few days in the countryside. 2. The only thing we can do now is wait till he comes back.(省略了不 to) 3. 作宾语 一部分及物动词必须要求不定式作宾语,要求不定式作宾语的有: afford,manage,agree, mean, arrange , neglect, offer, plan, prepare, care, choose, pretend, prove, refuse, demand, resolve, seek, seem ,happen, hesitate, undertake, want, wish ,decide, demand, determine, attempt, bother ,claim 例:1. They refused to accept my suggestion 2. I have learned to drive the ca r. 注意:如果不定式作宾语而后面又有一个宾语补足语,这时要用 it 作形式宾语而把这个不定式放 到补语后面。 例:1. I feel it my duty to help you 2. I on ce thought it impossible for us to finish the job in such a limited time. 4. 作宾语补足语 有些动词除要求一个宾语外,还要求一成分做补充说明(构成复合结构) ,这样, 这个宾语的行为,状态,特征等意思才相对完整,这个成分被称为补足语是。常要求不定式作宾语 补足语的动词或动词短语有:advise, invite, allow, know, ask ,believe, mean, order, command, permit, consider, persuade, declare , prefer, prove, expect, request, remind, suppose , forbid, tempt, force, urge, guess, intend, wish, imagine, depend on, teach, urge 例:1. They did not allow her to park the car there. 2. We can’t depend on him to help finish the work. 有些及物动词的复合宾语中作宾语补足语的不定式不带 to.这些动词往往是一些表示感观的动 词,如 feel, hear ,see, watch, observe , notice, listen t o , look at 及使役动词 let, make , have .须注意的是 help 是一个既可带 to 又可不带 to 的动词。 例:1.Did you notice him leave the house? 2. We felt the house shake. 3. She often helps me(to) do the washing. 5. 作主语补足语 要求带有宾语补足语的动词在变为被动语态,由于宾语变成了主语,原来的宾语补足语就变成 相应的主语补足语。但要注意的是不定式作主语补足语时,即使在 have, make ,see, hear,这样的 动词后,不定式符号 to 也不能省略(let 例外) 。 例:1. Motors are made to run by electricity. 2. I was let do the experiment alone. 6. 作定语 不定式作定语时须放在被修饰的名词,代词或短语之后。常见的要求不定式作后置定语的名词 和代词有:ab ility, occasion, agreement, pity, plan, anxiety, pleasure, attempt, promise, chance, claim, refusal, decision, desire, determination, responsibility, failure, freedom, honor, t

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