必修5 Unit 1 Reading John Snow defeats king cholera 含语言点_图文

Module 5 Unit 1 Great scientists
Warming up and reading

Do you know their names?

Guessing game

Who are they?

Who is he?
He was an ancient Greek mathematician. He found if you put an object into water, the water pushes the object up.

Archimedes

Who is he?
He wrote The Origin of Species. It explained how animals and plants developed as the environment changed.

Charles Darwin

Who is he?

He improved the first steam pump built by Thomas Savery and turned it into a steam engine for taking water out of mines. Later James Watt turned it into the first modern steam engine used on the railways.
Thomas Newcomen

Who is he?
He used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children. Gregory Mendel

Who is she?
She is a woman scientist.

She discovered radium(镭)and polonium(钋).
In her life, she won the Nobel Prize twice. She is … Marie Curie Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood.
生活中没有什么可怕的东西,只有需要理解的东西.

Who is he?
He invented the way of giving
to everybody in large cities. Thomas Edison
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninetynine percent perspiration.

electricity

Who is he?
He was a famous artist. He used to study dead people in order to make his paintings as accurate as possible.

Leonardo da Vinci

Who is he?
He developed a safety lamp for miners in 1815. It made working conditions underground very much safer. Sir Humphry Davy

Who is he?
He invented the first seismograph to indicate in the direction of an earthquakes.

Zhang Heng

Who is he?
Stephen Harking

He put forward a theory about black holes.

Warming up

Do the quiz and see who knows the most.

Q

Answers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Archimedes Charles Darwin Thomas Newcomen Gregor Mendel Marie Curie Thomas Edison Leonardo da Vinci Sir Humphry Davy Zhang Heng Stephen Hawking

How do the scientists usually do scientific research? The process
Find a problem Make a question Think of a method Collect results Analyse the results Find supporting evidence Draw a conclusion
THINK

WORK

FIND

SOLVE

What infectious diseases do you know about?

What do you know about cholera?
Cholera is the illness caused by a bacterium called Varian cholera. If it infects people’s intestines(肠胃), it may cause diarrhea(腹泻),

vomiting(呕吐) and leg cramps(腹痛). The most
common cause of cholera is by someone eating

food or drinking water that has been polluted
by the bacteria.

?Cholera can be mild(不严重的) or

even without symptoms(症状),
but a severe case can lead to death without immediate treatment.

? John Snow ( 1813~

1858) ? a legendary figure in the history of public health, epidemiology(流 行病学) and anesthesiology(麻 醉学) Do you know this person?

Fast reading
What’s the main idea of the passage? A. John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. B.The cause of Cholera was polluted water.

C. The source of all drinking water should be examined. D. How John Snow collected, analyzed data and found the cause of the disease and solved it .

Para 1 Para 2
Para 3

find a problem make up a question think of a method collect results

Para 4
Para 5 Para 6

analyse the results find supporting evidence
draw a conclusion

Para 7

Details
What is the problem?

The cholera was the most deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood. What caused cholera?

make up a question: Which theory to believe in?
Cholera multiplied in the air without reason. A cloud of dangerous gas would float around until it found its victims. People absorbed it with their meals.

What method did he use?
Public house

Many deaths happened here. A map of Broad

Street

No death happened here.

The water from the pump was to blame.

analyze the results: What happened to the pump water?

The water was from the river which had been polluted by the dirty water from London.

Find supporting evidence: What extra evidence did he find?
A woman and her daughter who lived far away but drank the water also died.

draw a conclusion with certainty

The polluted water carried the disease.

Post reading

Discussion

Things to do to prevent infectious diseases:
? Wash your hands often, especially during cold

and flu season. ? Be aware of what you eat, and be careful how you prepare it. ? Use antibiotics(抗生素) exactly as prescribed. ? Be cautious around all wild and domestic animals that are not familiar to you. ? Avoid areas of insect infestation.

Summary
Read the passage again and fill in the blanks: John Snow was a well-known _______ doctor in London in the cause of cholera in _____ 19th century. He wanted to find the ______ order to ______ defeat it. In 1854 when a cholera ______ broke out, he began to gather information. He _______ marked on a map where all the dead people had lived and he found that many people who had drunk the dirty water from the ______ pump died. So he decided that the polluted water carried cholera. He suggested that the _______ source of all water supplies be examined _________ and the water companies were__________ instructed not expose people ___ to polluted water any more. Finally to ______ defeated “King Cholera” was _______.

Careful reading

Find a problem Para. 1 What causes cholera? Make a question Para. 2 Which theory is correct? Think of a method Collect data on those who were ill Para. 3 or died and where they got their water.

Collect results Para. 4 Plot information on a map to find out where people died or did not die. Analyse the results Para. 5 Analyse the water to see if that is the cause of the illness. Find supporting evidence Para. 6 Find other evidence to support the analysis. Draw a conclusion Para. 7 The water was to blame. The source of all drinking water should be examined to make sure it is safe.

1. invent & discover (1) invent 发明, 发明原先不存在的东西 Who invented the steam engine? (2) discover 发现, 探索早就客观存在着 的事物 Columbus discovered America in 1492.

2. explain explain sth. to sb. 3. characteristic (1) n. 特征;特性;特色 I'll send her a gift with Chinese characteristic. (2) adj. 典型的;特有的 Forgetfulness is often characteristic of aged people.

4. pass sth from… 从…处传来 pass by 路过, 经过… pass down 把…传下去 pass on 传递, 传授 passed from their ancestors. 1)The tradition is ___________ 2) This spirit should be passed ______ down from

generation to generation.
on to the person next to you . 3) Pass the letter ___ by and never notice 4) So many people pass ___ the change.

5.Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? 是谁发明了把电带给大城市中的每个人的办法? the way of doing sth.= the way to do … “做…..的方法” 她给我们示范清洗它的办法。 She showed us the way of cleaning it. = She showed us the way to clean it.

6. know about 了解有关….的情况
know of 听说过 1)有些事我想了解一下。 There is something I want to know about. 2)我听说过那件事, 但不很清楚。 I know of it , but I didn’t know it well.

7. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. exposed to cholera 是过去分词作后置定语, 表 示被动, 意为 “患霍乱的”。 (1) 鲁迅写的书是很受欢迎的。

The books written by LuXun are very popular.
(2) 昨天我们看见的那个人是史密斯先生。

The man seen by us yesterday is Mr. Smith.

8.This was the deadly disease of its day. die (v.) death (n.) dead (adj.) deadly (adj.) (1) 危险的; 致命的 a deadly disease / weapon (2) 强有力的 a deadly remark 击中要害的评论 (3) 不共戴天的 a deadly enemy

9. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. every time 在这里是连词, 引导时间状语 从句, 意为“每次, 每当”。 Every time I meet him, I always think of the things happened between us.

每次见到他, 我就想起发生在我们之间的 事情。

注意: immediately, the moment, directly, instantly 等与 every time一样, 都可以 用作连词引导时间状语从句, 意为 “一…..就”。 (1) I will give the letter to him immediately I see him. 我一见到他就把这封信给他。 (2) I came directly I got your letter. 我一收到你的信就来了。

10. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals . (1) absorb…..into 吸收 The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization. 这家大公司逐渐将这些小的公司吞并了。

(2) suggest 在句中是“暗示,表明”。
The disorganized meeting suggested bad preparation. 混乱的会场表明准备工作很差。 ?suggest 还有 “建议”的意思, 在后文中有体现: “To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.” (L46) 为防止这种情况再度发生, ……

? I suggested that he should give up smoking.
我建议他戒烟。

? The chairman suggested the meeting be put off until next week.
主席建议会议延迟到下周举行。 ?suggest 后面还可以接-ing形式或名词。 ? She suggested a picnic at the weekend. ? Kate suggested leaving early for the airport.


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