必修3 Module 5阅读_图文

Philosophers of ancient China

Confucius (551BC-479BC)

Mencius (372BC-289BC)

Mozi (476BC-390BC)

孔子(前551~前479)名丘,字仲尼。 春秋后期伟大的思想家、教育家,儒家 的创始人。鲁国人。是儒家学派的创 始人,提出了“仁”的思想,是中国古代 著名的思想家和教育家。

The family is important . We are members of a group.

家天下

Confucius Treat others in the way you (551BC-479BC) want to be treated
己所不欲,勿施于人.

孔府
Confucius Mansion

孔林
Confucius Cemetery

孔庙
Confucius Temple

孟子(前372—前289)名轲,战国中
期鲁国邹人。受业于子思(孔子之孙, 名)之门人,曾游历于宋、滕、魏、 齐等国,阐述他的政治主张,还曾在 齐为卿。晚年退而著书,传世有《孟 子》七篇。他是战国中期儒家的代表。

People are more important than rulers.

民为贵 君为轻
Man is born good

人性本善

Mencius 289BC)

(372BC-

墨翟(公元前468—
376),人们尊称墨子。 他是战国初年的鲁国 人,大约生于公元前 468年,死于公元前 376年。

All human beings are equal.
众生平等 We should love all human beings.

兼爱
Mozi (376BC-

equal important look after philosopher philosophy

ruler state teachings thinker treat war
In ancient China, private teachers traveled from state to s_______ explaining their p________ tate hilosophy Confucius was the most important of the ancient Chinese p________ hilosophers Confucius’s t_________ eaching influenced society for more than hinkers included Mencius 2000 years. Other important t_______ and Mozi. All three teachers believed in the i_________ mportance of kindness and good government. Mencius’s ideas were very similar to those of Confucius, but some of Mozi’s t_________ eachings were very different. For example, he hated ar the idea of w_____ and believed that strong people should l_________ ook after weaker people.

Fast Reading

1.What’s the purpose of the author to write

this passage?
A. The author wants to make people believe in the teachings by thinkers of ancient. B. The author wants to introduce three influential philosophers of ancient China. C. The author wants to tell interesting stories about three important teachers in ancient China. D. The author wants to show the history of philosophy in ancient China.

2.Find out the teachings of the three philosophers:

Confucius Kindness, duty and order in society are important. Mencius Man is good. If the government was kind, people would be good. People were more important than rulers. He hated the state when it treated people badly. Mozi Government was most important. All men were equal. We should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves. He hated the idea of war.

1. Whose influence has been the greatest among all the philosophers of ancient China? A. Mencius B. Mozi C. Confucius

2. Confucius stressed the importance of the following aspects except__________ A. Kindness B. friendship C. order D. duty

3. Which is NOT the right statement about Mozi? A. He was known for his unusual clothes and behavior.

B. He hated the idea of war.
C. All his beliefs were the same as Confucius. D. He believed all men were equal.

4. In some ways, Mozi’s beliefs were similar to those of______.
A. Mozi B. Mencius C. Confucius

5. Which shows the right order of time when the three great thinkers

lived?
A.Confucius--- Mencius ---Mozi

B.Mencius----Mozi----Confucius
C. Confucius---Mozi---Mencius

D.Mozi--- Mencius---Confucius

Read the passage and fill in the blanks
Paragraph 1

Confucius Introduction about __________
551BC ________ --- 479BC The greatest influence (more than2,000years)

He stressed the importance of ________, kindness dutyin society. order _______ and ______

Read the passage and fill in the blanks
Paragraph 2 Introduction about ________ Mencius born in ______ 372 BC and brought up by ____his _______ only mother at an important ________ positionin the government _________ first and later _______ resigned Man was ________ kind . _______ were more important than People ______ rulers hate the _____ cruel___________ government

Read the passage and fill in the blanks
Paragraph 3

Introduction about ___________ Mozi _________ --- 390 BC 476BC __________ was most important . Government All man are _________ . equal love all ______ ________ and look after the weak human beings hate the idea of ______ war

1.States were often at peace with each other in ancient China. 2.Confucius’ideas have the greatest influence on China. 3.Mencius resigned from the government, because the first ruler didn’t respect him. 4.Mencius spent all his life preparing a book of his teachings called The Book of Mencius. 5.Mozi’s beliefs were the same as those of Confucius. 6. Mencius is the oldest among the three.

1. Which of the sentence in the passage has the same meaning with the following one?
Mencius followed Confucius’s principles and became an officer in a state. He became a student of Confucius’s ________________________________ ideas, and was then given an ________________________________ important position in the government ________________________________ of a state. ________________________________

2. According to Mencius, why is man different from animals? Because he believed that the reason why man is different from animals is that man is good. 3. Translate the following sentence: Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves.
墨子教导我们要爱所有的人,并照看弱 者。(兼爱与扶危济贫)

Consolidation

Para1:1.同…… 处于战争状态 2.是一段……. 的时间 3.强调 …….. 的重要性 4.被……影响 Para2:1.与……相似 2.抚养 培育 3.听从某人建议 4.周游列国 5.统治者的军师 .谋士 Para3:1.出生于 2.因为 以……… 而闻名 3.在某些方面 某种程度上 4.结果 5.照顾 照料

at war with it is/was a time when stress the importance of be influenced by be similar to bring up take/follow one’s advice travel from state to state an adviser to the ruler be born in be famous for in some ways as a result look after

Read the passage again ,then fill in the chart with proper information according to the passage.

Name

job

Born date
551BC479BC

Teachings
Kindness,duty and order in society . 1.Man is good. 2.People were more important than rulers. 1.Government was most important. 2.All men were equal. 3.Love all human beings.

Confucius Philos

opher

thinker 372BCMencius adviser 289BC Mozi teacher 476BC390BC

Choose one philosopher you like most and tell some ideas of him to your partners. What can you learn from their teachings?

Anybody can help others with a willing heart. Let’s try our best to lend others a helping hand and work hand in hand to create a harmonious society(和谐社会). Just do it!

1.Exploring the old and deducing the new makes a teacher. 温故而知新,可以为师矣 。

2. To learn without thinking is labor in vain, to think without learning is desolation.
学而不思则罔,思而不学则怠。 3. Knowledge is not equal to devotion. Devotion is not equal to joy. 知之者不如好知者,好知者不如乐知者。

4. You can learn from everyone.
三人行必有我师。

Please tell whose ideas the statements are: Mencius 1.Man is born good. 人性本善 2.All human beings are equal. Mozi 人无长幼贵贱(众生平等) 3.The family is important. We are Confucius members of a group. 家国天下,修齐治平(治国必先齐家 ) 4.Treat others in the way you want to be treated. 己所不欲,勿施于人。 Confucius 5.People are more important than rulers. 民为贵,君为轻。(民贵君轻) Mencius

6.We should love all human beings. 7.The order兼爱 in society is important. Mozi 社会秩序(三纲五常) Confucius 8.Strong people should look after Mozi weaker people. 力强当养力弱 9.People should avoid wars. 非攻 Mozi 10.Students should often go over what they have learnt. 学而时习之,不亦说乎。 Confucius


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