牛津英语模块一unit3 grammar and usage_图文

Looking good, feeling good

Grammar and usage
Non-restrictive attributive clauses

限制性定语从句与先行词之间不用逗号 隔开; 非限制性定语从句与先行词之间一般用 逗号隔开。
My cousin whose father is a teacher wants to be an actor.

My cousin, whose father is a teacher, wants to be an actor.

1. A. This is the place where I lived ten years ago. B. She is going to spend the winter holiday in Macao, which returned to China in 1999. 2. A. He is a man who I can ask for help. B. His father, who works in Beijing, came back yesterday.

限制性定语从句和先行词关系密切, 如果去掉从句,剩余部分意义不完整; 非限制性定语从句只是先行词的附加 说明,如果去掉从句,意义仍然完整。

S=subject, P=predicate, O=object,

My house , which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我的房子 有个漂亮的花园,房子是去 年买的。 Main clause My house has got a lovely garden.

S

P

O

有时同一个限制性从句变为非限制性从句 会改变全句的意思。 1. I have a sister who works in a hospital. 我有一位在医院工作的姐姐。 (不只一位姐姐) 2. I have a sister, who works in a hospital. 我有一位姐姐,她在医院工作。 (只有一位姐姐)

3. All the magazines here which have beautiful pictures were written by him. 里面有漂亮图画的那些杂志是他写的。 (杂志有带图画和不带图画两类) 4. All the magazines here, which have beautiful pictures, were written by him.

所有的杂志都是他写的,里面都有漂亮的 图画。 (杂志只有一种)

His father, who works in Beijing, came back yesterday. 当先行词是地名人名、世界上独一 无二的事物或家庭唯一成员时,通 常只用非限制性定语从句。 Shanghai, which is in East China, is developing rapidly.

Fill in the blanks with proper relative words. 1. The famous basketball star, ____ is an who American, came to China yesterday. 2. In those days, she used to go to Mr black, with whom she had a wonderful _____ time. 3. I bought a car yesterday, _____ cost which me a lot.

4. Xi’an, ______ I visited last year, is a which nice old city. 5. He will come to see me next July, _____ he won’t be so busy. when 6. The school, where I once studied, was _____ built thirty years ago.

7. John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, ________ which was true. As 8. ____ we all know, he is good at English.

Conclusion
1. as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时, as 和which可代替整个主句,相当于and this 或and that。这两个关系代词都可指代主句 所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以

作主语和宾语。

2. as和which引导非限制性定语从句的不 同之处在于:
(1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which引导 的定语从句不可放在句首。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时, 从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若从句中的谓 语为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which。另外,as引导非限制性从句,常带有 “正如”的意思。

Practice
1. Alice received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. _____ 2. The weather turned out to be very good, _____ which was more than we could expect. 3. ___ is expected, the England team won As the football match.

4. It rained hard yesterday, _______ which prevented me from going to the park. 5. As we can see, the smoke came from __ the little dustbin.

非限制性定语从句中通常使用下 列关系代词和副词
关系代词:which / who / whom / whose / as

关系副词:when / where
(非限制性定语从句中不用关系词that; 非限制性定语从句中关系词不能省略)

all / some / of + whom / which引导非限制性 定语从句

Examples:
1. He has told us many stories, all of which are about the famous Long Match. 2. The students of Class 1, some of whom came from Japan, went camping yesterday.

Conclusion
在非限制性定语从句中,一些表达数量或定 位的数词或代词如 all/ some/ one/ both/ neither/ none/ any/ either/ any 等可与 of 构成 介词词组修饰限制先行词,此时先行词在其后的

定语从句中作介词的宾语,关系代词不可用that。
如先行词指人则用whom,如先行词指物则用

which引导从句。

Other examples

1. I am doing different types of which exercises, all of ______ are quite helpful to my health. whom 2. Many people, some of ______ are not overweight, are going on diets. 3. There are 54 students in my class, three of _______ come from US. whom

Can you find the non-restrictive attributive clauses in the Reading section on pages 42-43?

*I’m taking weight-loss pills called Fat-Less,
which are quite popular among young women here.

*My mother, who you met last year, keeps telling me not to take them because they are dangerous. *My mother insisted on sending me to the hospital, where I received good medical treatment.

*It’s the same in China—many people, some of whom are not overweight at all, are always going on a diet or taking weight-loss pills, which are often dangerous.

非限制性定语从句和单句的比较
1.I am reading Harry Porter, which an interesting book. _____is
This 2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry. which 3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry.

× that
whom 5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers. them 4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers.

Comparison
1. ① This is one of the most interesting films ___ shown last week. D ② This is the very one of the most interesting films ___ shown last B week.

A. which was
C. which were

B. that was
D. that were

2. ① He has two sons, __ are college B students. ② He has two sons, and __ are college C students.

A. both of which B. both of whom
C. both of them D. both of it

3. ① He still lives in the room __ window B faces to the east. ② He still lives in the room, the window __ faces to the east. D ③ He still lives in the room __ is in the A north of the city. ④ He still lives in the room __ there is a C beautiful table. A. which B. whose C. where D. of which

4. ① ___ we all know, China is rich in B natural resources. ② ___ is well-known that China is C rich in natural resources. ③ ___ is well-known, China is rich in B

natural resources.
A. Which B. As C. It D. That

5. ① Is this museum ___ he visited last B

month?
② The teacher tells us that ___ cleans D the blackboard is to be praised. A. that C. which B. the one D. the one who

Grammar and usage
Question tags

反义疑问句也叫附加疑问句,由陈述 句加简短附加问句构成,用以要求对 方证实所述之事。

1. 陈述部分肯定式 + 疑问部分否 定式 They work here, don’t they?

She was ill yesterday, wasn’t she?

2. 陈述部分否定式 + 疑问部分 肯定式

You didn’t go, did you?
He can’t ride a bike, can he?

请注意以下句型的反义疑 问句的用法:

1)陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分 要用 aren't I. I’m as tall as your sister, aren't I? I am a student, aren’t I?

2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问 部分要用may +主语 I wish to have a word with you, may I?

3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分 用肯定含义。 The Swede made no answer, did he / she? Some plants never blown , do they?

There are few apples in the basket, are there? He can hardly swim, can he? They seldom come late, do they? She rarely speaks to you in English, does she?

4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述 部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。
He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?

5)陈述部分有 have to + v. (had to + v.), 疑问部分常用don't +主语(didn't +主 语)。 We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we? They had to cross the busy street, didn’t they?

6)陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑 问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主 语。 He used to take pictures there, didn't he? She used to stay up late, usedn’t she?

7)陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问 句部分用hadn't you? You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you? You’d better get up early, hadn’t you?

8)陈述部分有would rather + v.疑

问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。 He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?

9)陈述部分有You'd like to + v. 疑问

部分用wouldn't +主语。
You’d like to go with me, wouldn't you?

10) must在表示"推测"时,根据其 推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。 He must be a doctor, isn't he? You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?

11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用be + 主语。
What colours, aren't they?

What a smell, isn't it?

13)陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定 代词 everything, that, this nothing,

疑问部分主语用 it 。
Everything is ready, isn't it?

14)省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句, 疑问部分用will you。

Don't do that again, will you?
Go with me, will you / won't you ?

注意:
Let's 开头的祈使句,后用 shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句,后用 will you?

Let's go and listen to the music, shall we? Let us wait for you in the readingroom, will you?

反义疑问句的回答用yes,no 但是, 当陈述部分是否定形式时,回答要 按事实。
They don’t work hard, do they? Yes, they do. (不, 他们工作努力。) No, they don’t. (对, 他们工作不努力。)

高考真题
1. Sally’s never seen a play in the Shanghai Grand Theatre, _______? (2009上海) B A. hasn’t she B. has she C. isn’t she D. is she 2. You and I could hardly work together, ________? (2009湖南) D A. could you B. couldn’t I C. couldn’t we D. could we

3. When you’ve finished with that book, don’t C forget to put it back on the shelf, _______? (2007 北京) A. do you B. don’t you C. will you D. won’t you 4. You didn’t use to like him much when we C were at school, _______? (2008上海春季) A. were we B. weren’t we C. did you D. didn’t you 5. He must be helping the old man to water the B flowers, ________? (2009陕西) A. is he B. isn’t he C. must he D. mustn’t he


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