(英语)高考专题讲义【阅读理解(3)】

高考英语专题讲义【阅读理解(3)】
◆细节理解题 语意转换型
[技巧点拨] 虽然说细节题的答案一般可以在文章中直接或间接地找到, 但是与阅读材料一模一样 的正确选项是几乎没有的。而是用不同的词语或句型表达相同的意思, 即语意转换。解题时 注意以下几点: 1. 顺序性原则:一般说来, 题序与其题眼在文章中的顺序相同。如第 53 题的答案信息 会在第 52 题的答案信息之后。 2. 定位信息点:通过寻读法(scanning), 用题干中的关键词在文中搜索, 迅速确定相关词 句或信息点所在的位置, 缩小阅读范围。题干中可用来在文中搜索的关键词可能是专有名 词、数词、实体名词, 以及这些词的同义表达等。 3. 理解信息点:在找到关键词句后, 要仔细阅读, 准确理解, 对照选项, 看哪个选项的 意思与之最接近。 4. 排除干扰项:在作出选择的过程中, 要善于辨别真伪, 排除干扰, 不断缩小范围, 选 出正确答案, 这就是我们常说的排除法。 干扰项一般具有以下特征: (1) 杜撰事实, 无中生有。文中根本找不到任何相关信息, 完全由命题人所捏造。 (2) 偷梁换柱, 以假乱真。采用原文中的句式和大部分词汇, 但换了个别词, 改变了原 意或范围。 (3) 半真半假, 虚虚实实。干扰项与原文相关细节部分相同, 部分相悖。 (4) 文不对题, 滥竽充数。干扰项是文中的事实细节, 但与题干要求不符。
[经典例题] 阅读下列文段,从题中所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项。 (2014 陕西)When I told my father that I was moving to Des Moines, Iowa, he told me ... He
also worked as a professor at SMU, and there was a girl student in his class who suffered from a sericus back disease. She couldn't afford the operation because her family was poor.
Her mother ran a boardinghouse in Galveston, a seaside town near Houston, Texas. She was cleaning out the attic (阁楼) one day when she came across an old dusty manuscript (手稿). On its top page were the words, "By O.Henry". It was a nice story, and she sent it to her daughter at SMU, who showed it to my father. My father had never read the story before, but it sounded like O.Henry, and he knew that O.Henry had once lived in Houston. So it was possible that the famous author had gone to the beach and stayed in the Gainestown boardinghouse, and had written the story, there and left the manuscript behind by accident...
My father then set out to sell it. Eventually, he found himself in Des Moines, meeting with Gardner Cowles, a top editor at the Des Moines Register. Cowles loves the story and bought it on the spot. My father took the money to the girl. It was just enough for her to have the operation she so desperately needed.
My father never told me what the O.Henry story was about. But I doubt that it could have
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been better than his own story.

1. Who found the O.Henry's manuscript?

A. The girl's mother. B. The author's father. C. The girl.

D. The author.

2. Which of the following might explain the fact that the manuscript was found in the attic?

A. O.Henry once worked in Houston.

B. O.Henry once stayed in Galveston.

C. O.Henry once moved to Des Moines. D. O.Henry once taught at SMU.

3. According to the passage, why did the author's father go to Des Moines?

A. To sell the O.Henry story.

B. To meet the author himself.

C. To talk with the O.Henry expert.

D. To give money to the glrl.

解析:本文讲述了作者的父亲作为大学教授积极帮助他的一位学生卖掉欧·亨利的作品, 从而为她筹得足够的手术费的故事。

1. A 用题干中的关键词 manuscript 在文中搜索,寻读后找到第二段第二句 She was cleaning out the attic(阁楼)one day when she came across an old dusty manuscript(手稿);句

中 she 指代谁?往前找,第二段首句的 Her mother,再往前找,第一段的末句中有 a girl,可 见该句中的 she 是指代 the girl's mother,当然还要懂 came across 意为“无意中发现(=found

by accident)”,可知选 A。 2. B 本题是问“下面哪个选项可以解释这个事实:手稿是在阁楼找到的”,由关键 attic

和命题的顺序性原则可知,信息点在第二段第二句之后。由第二段倒数第二句 So it was

possible that the famous author...stayed in the Gainestown boardinghouse, and had written the

story there and left the manuscript behind by accident,可知选 B。 3. A 用题干中的关键词 Des Moines 到文中寻读并根据命题的顺序性原则,在第三段第

二句找到,根据该段前三句 My father then set out to sell it.Eventually,he found himself in Des Moines,meeting with Gardner Cowles... Cowles loves the story and bought it on the spot 可知,

作者去 Des Moines 的目的是卖 0.Henry 的那个故事,故选 A。

[即时练习] 阅读下列文段,从题中所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项。 (2014 重庆)To he true I was never very neat, while my roommate Kate was extremely
organized... We both got tired of each other. War broke out one evening. Kate came into the room. Soon, I heard her screaming, "Take
your shoes away! Why under my bed!" Deafened, I saw my shoes flying at me. I jumped to my feet and started yelling. She yelled back louder.
The room was filled with anger. We could not have stayed together for a single minute but for a phone call. Kate answered it. From her end of the conversation, I could tell right away her grandma was seriously ill. When she hung up, she quickly crawled (爬) under her covers, sobbing. Obviously, that was something she should not go through alone. All of a sudden, a warm feeling of sympathy rose up in my heart.
Slowly, I started to collect the pencils, took back the books, made my bed, cleaned the socks everywhere and swept the floor, even on her side. Then, she reached out her hands to grasp mine. I looked up into her eyes. She smiled at me, "Thanks."
Kate and I stayed roommates for the rest of the year. We did not always agree, but we

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learned the key to living together: giving in, cleaning up and holding on.

1. What made Kate so angry one evening?

A. She couldn't find her books.

B. She heard the author shouting loud.

C. She got the news that her grandma was ill. D. She saw the author's shoes beneath her bed.

2. The author tidied up the room most probably because_________.

A. she was scared by Kate's anger

B. she hated herself for being so messy

C. she wanted to show her care

D. she was asked by Kate to do so

答案:DC

是非判断型 [技巧点拨]
这里的是非判断题, 主要是指 true 或 NOT true, 以及含 EXCEPT 等词的这类题。解答这 类题, 一定要看清, 是选与文章内容相符的选项还是选不相符的选项, 或是选文中没有谈及 的内容。
特别注意:NOT true 这类题,要求选出一个错误选项, 也就是说, 有三个选项是正确的。 考生千万不要看到一个正确选项时, 就以为这是要选的正确答案呀, 这点非常容易出错。 Not true 这类题涉及的信息点跨度大, 要注意作记号。

[经典例题] 阅读下列文段,从题中所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项。

(2011 广东)Food sometimes gets poisoned with harmful things. A person who eats such food

can get an illness called food poisoning. Food poisoning is usually not serious, but some types are

deadly. The symptoms of food poisoning usually begin within hours of eating the poisoned food.

Fever is one of the most common symptoms.

Certain microorganisms(微生物)cause most types of food poisoning. Bacteria and other

microorganisms can poison eggs, meat, vegetables, and many other foods. After entering the body,

these tiny living things release (释放)poisons that make people sick.

Some chemicals can also cause food poisoning. They are often added to food while it is being

grown, processes, or prepared. For example, many farmers spray chemicals on crops to kill weeds

and insects.

Some people may have a bad reaction to those chemicals when they eat the crops. Some

plants and animals contain natural poisons that are harmful to people. These include certain kinds

of seafood, grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and mushrooms.

When people handle food properly, the risk of food poisoning is very small...

1.Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Food poisoned can make people sick. B. Food poisoning means death.

C. Food poisoning comes in varieties.

D. Food poisoning can be serious.

2. Food poisoning can be caused by all the following EXCEPT ____.

A. some chemicals

B. low temperatures

C. some tiny living things D. certain natural materials

解析:1 题, 由第一段第三句 Food poisoning is usually not serious 可知,选项 B (Food

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poisoning means death)与事实不符, 即 NOT true,故选 B。顺便说说,由第一段第一二句可 知,选项 A 与内容相符,是同义转换;由第二、三、四段的第一句话可知,选项 C 相符, 是具体(原文)与概括(选项);由第一段第三句的 but some types are deadly(致命的)可知,选项 D 相符,同义转换。
2 题, 由第二段第一句可知选项 C 对; 由第三段 第一句可知选项 A 对; 由第四段第一句 可知选项 D 对; 选项 B 文中没有提到, 故选 B。
[即时练习] 阅读下列文段,从题中所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项。 (2014 福建) It was Mother’s Day morning last year and I was doing my shopping at our local supermarket
with my five-year-old son, Tenyson. As we were leaving, we found that only minutes earlier an elderly woman had fallen over at the entrance and had hit her head on the concrete. Her husband was with her, but there was blood everywhere and the woman was embarrassed and clearly in shock.
Walking towards the scene, Tenyson became very upset about what had happened to the couple. He said to me, “Mum, it’s not much fun falling over in front of everyone.”
…Tenyson suggested that we should buy the lady a flower. “It will make her feel better,” he said. I was amazed that he’d come up with such a sweet idea. So we went over to the flower seller and asked her if we could buy a flower for the lady to cheer her up. “Just take it,” she replied. “I can’t take your money for such a wonderful gesture.”
… Instead I gave the flower to the woman’s husband and told him, “ My son was very upset for your wife and wanted to give her this flower to make her feel better.” At that, the old man started crying and said, “Thank you so much, you have a wonderful son. Happy Mother’s Day to you.” The man then bent down and gave his wife the flower, telling her who it was from. Though badly hurt and shaken, the old lady looked up at Tenyson with love in her eyes and gave him a little smile. 57. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. The elderly woman was knocked down by Tenyson. B. Tenyson’s idea of buying a flower gained his father’s support. C. Tenyson’s care for the elderly woman puzzled the flower seller. D. The elderly woman was moved to tears by Tenyson’s gesture. 答案:B
(1) Once there was a man who liked to eat mangoes. One day he decided to get the sweetest mango from the very top of the tree. Mangoes which are exposed to the sun the most are the sweetest. So he climbed up to the top, where the branches were thin. He managed to pick up a few
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sweet reddish fruits, but, in an attempt to climb down, he slipped and started falling towards the

ground. Fortunately, he caught the branch as he was falling and remained helplessly hanging on

the tree. Then he started to call nearby villagers for help. They immediately came with a ladder

and sticks, but could do little to help him.

Then after some time one calm and thoughtful person arrived — a well-known sage (a wise

person) who lived in a simple hut nearby. People were very curious to see what he would do, as he

was famous in solving many people’s problems in the area and sometimes very complicated ones.

He was silent for a minute and then picked up a stone and threw it at the hanging man.

Everybody was surprised. The hanging mango lover started to shout: “What are you doing?!

Are you crazy? Do you want me to break my neck?” The sage was silent. Then he took another

stone and threw it at the man. The man was very angry: “If I could just come down, I would show

you!”

That’s what everybody wanted. Then he was coming down. But how? Now everybody was

tense about what would happen next! Some wanted to blame the sage, but they didn’t. The sage

picked another stone and threw it again at the man, even more forcefully. Now the man on the tree

was even more angry and developed a great determination to come down and take revenge (复仇).

He then used all his skill and strength and somehow reached the branches which were safe to

start going down. And he made it! Everybody was amazed.

However, the rescued man found the sage gone. He stood there, realizing that the man really

saved him because he induced (引诱) him to try his best and save himself.

“I should be thankful and not angry.”

1.From the story we know that the sweetest mango must be the one ______.

A.on the very top of a tree

B.hidden in the middle of a tree

C.on the tree for the longest time D.exposed to sunlight less often

2.What happened after he had picked a few sweet reddish mangoes?

A.He slipped and fell to the ground suddenly.

B.He was climbing down quickly but carefully.

C.He remained hanging helplessly on the tree.

D.He shouted loudly for help but no one helped.

3.How did the man feel when the sage hit him with a stone?

A.He was nervous.

B.He kept silent.

C.He felt surprised.

D.He was angry.

4.What do you think motivated (caused) the man to climb down?

A.Courage.

B.Revenge.

C.Carefulness. D.Assistance.

5. What does the story imply?

A.Anger saves one’s life.

B.Wisdom does count (很重要).

C.Skill and strength count.

D.Anger is the biggest enemy.

(2) NEW YORK— Picking a Christmas tree takes most people a few minutes, or a couple of

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hours if they head for the woods. Dave Murbach needs 11 months.

Almost every day of every year, Murbach’s thoughts turn to vision of a perfectly shaped

evergreen tree that will take everyone's breath away.

Murbach is the man responsible for finding the towering tree that makes more attractive

Manhattan’s Rockefeller Center each Christmas season.

“I'm always looking for a tree,” the center's chief gardener says. “I look for it even when I go

to the beach in the summer. It' s like a homework assignment hanging over your head.”

And if he gets it wrong, there's nothing hiding it.

“Every day it's up, 400,000 people go by, and 2.5 million people watch the lighting

celebration on television,”he says.

This year’s tree, a 74-foot Nomy spruce (云杉) from Richfield, Ohio, flown to New York on

the world's largest cargo plane, was lighted on December 2.

The arrival of the tree leads in the Christmas season in New York — a tradition dating back to

1931, when the workers building Rockefeller Center put up a small tree with ornaments (装饰品).

The search for the next year's tree starts soon after the old tree is chopped up for wood chips

and horse-jumping logs.

Murbach has three standards: The tree must be at least 65 feet high, at least 35 feet across

and leaves dense (密集的) enough not to see through.

That's not as simple as it sounds. Though forests are full of evergreens, few get enough

sunlight or space to fill out. And branches in snow regions often break under the weight, making

trees unbalanced.

Back at the office, he sorts through hundreds of letters from people offering their trees, many

addressed simply to “Mr. Christmas Tree Man.”

Though there was occasional anxiety attack and sleepless night, Murbach knows the effect

the tree has on people: “It's for bringing people together, attempting to bring together people you

love. That's what I hope it sets off.” But Murbach says he's always too worn out to celebrate

Christmas.

1. Which is the correct order of the events in the passage?

a. Murbach’s thoughts turn to a perfectly shaped tree.

b. 2.5 million people watch the Christmas tree.

c. The tree is flown to New York.

d. It was lighted on December 2.

e. The tree is chopped up.

f. Murbach searches for the tree.

A. a, b, c, d, e, f

B. c, d, b, f, e, a C. c, d, e, b, a, f

D. a, f, c, d, b, e

2. Murbach spends a lot of time_____that are exhibited in Manhattan’s Rockefeller Center each

Christmas season.

A. taking care of Christmas trees B. deciding on the perfect evergreens

C. sorting the letters from people D. deciding the TV programs

3. Why does Murbach take his job seriously?

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A. Because he wants everyone to be happy with his choice.

B. Because he hopes to make everybody unable to breathe.

C. Because he enjoys showing off.

D. Because he wishes to attract people's attention to himself.

4. According to Murbach' s standard of trees, the best tree must_______ .

A. be evergreen

B. have lots of space between their branches

C. be tall enough not to see through D. be equally balanced

5. What kind of person do you think Murbach is?

A. A person always ignoring his family. B. A person full of love.

C. A person devoted to his work.

D. A person with great anxiety.

(3)

Regarded as one of the English language’s most gifted poets, John Keats wrote poetry that

concentrated on imagery, human nature, and philosophy. Although Keats didn’t receive much

formal literary education, his own studies and passion brought him much success. Additionally, his

own life situation influenced his poetry greatly.

Growing up as a young boy in London in a lower middle-class family, the young John didn’t

attend a private school, but went to a public one. His teachers and his family’s friends regarded

him as an optimistic boy who favored playing and fighting much more than minding his studies.

After his father’s death in the early 1800s, followed by his mother’s passing due to tuberculosis

(肺结核), he began viewing life differently. He wanted to escape the world and did so by reading

anything he could get his hands on.

At around the age of 16, the teenage John Keats began studying under a surgeon so that he

too might become a doctor. However, his literary appetite had taken too much of his fancy,

especially with his addiction to the poetry of Ehmund Spenser. He was able to have his first full

poem published in the Examiner in 1816, entitled O Solitude! If I Must With Thee Dwell. Within

two months in 1817, Keats had written an entire volume of poetry, but was sharply criticized by a

magazine. However, the negative response didn’t stop his pursuit of rhythm (韵律).

John Keats’ next work was Endymion, which was published in May 1818. The story

involves a shepherd who falls in love with the moon goddess and leads him on an adventure of

one boy’s hope to overcome the limitations of being human. Following Engymion, however, he

tried something more narrative-based and wrote Isabella. During this time, John Keats began

seeing his limitations in poetry due to his own limit in life experiences. He would have to have the

“knowledge” associated with his poems. His next work was Hyperion that would attempt to

combine all that he learned. However, a bout (发作) with tuberculosis while visiting Italy would

keep him from his work and eventually take his life in 1821.

1.John Keats’ attitude towards life changed because of _________.

A. his early education from school

B. the deaths of his parents

C. Edmund Spenser’s poetry

D. the criticism of a magazine

2.What is the common thing between John Keats and his mother?

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A. They read many books.

B. They had a bad childhood

C. They died of the same disease. D. They showed strong interest in poetry

3.What do we know from the passage?

A. Keats received little education at school.

B. Keats once had a chance of becoming a doctor.

C. In 1816 Keats spent two months writing a poem.

D. Endymion was about a real love story.

4.While pursuing his dream of becoming a poet at first, John Keats was __________.

A. determined B. experienced C. knowledgeable D. impatient

5.What can we infer from the passage?

A. Keats’ family must have been very poor when he was young.

B. Edmund Spenser was the greatest poet in Keats’ time.

C. It is likely that Keats rewrote his poem Isabella.

D. The poem Hyperion wasn’t completed by Keats.

(4) Last night’s meteor (流星) shower left many people in the community dissatisfied and demanding answers. According to Gabe Rothschild, Emerald Valley’s mayor, people gathered in the suburbs of the city, carrying heavy telescopes, expecting to watch the brightly burning meteors passing through the sky. What they found instead was a sky so brightened by the city’s lights that it darkened the light of the meteors passing overhead. “My family was so frustrated,” admitted town resident Duane Cosby, “We wanted to make this an unforgettable family outing, but it turned out to be a huge disappointment.” Astronomers—scientists who study stars and planets—have been complaining about this problem for decades. They say that light pollution prevents them from seeing objects in the sky that they could see quite easily in the past. They call on people and the government to take measures to fight against it. There is yet a population besides professional and amateur star observers that suffers even more from light pollution. This population consists of birds, bats, frogs, snakes, etc. For example, outdoor lighting severely affects migrating (迁徙的) birds. According to the International Dark-Sky Association, “100 million birds a year throughout North America die in crashes with lighted buildings and towers.” Countless more animal casualties (伤亡) result from the use of artificial lighting. Clearly, people enjoy the benefits of lighting their evenings. But some scientists think it can be harmful for humans, too. They worry that exposure to light while sleeping can increase a person’s chances of getting cancer. Emerald Valley is only one community that is becoming aware of the negative effects of light pollution. For years, Flagstaff, Arizona, has enforced lighting regulations in its city in order to assist astronomers at the Lowell Observatory. Similar efforts have been made worldwide, and a movement is underway to remind us to turn off lights when we are not using them, so that other

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creatures can share the night. 1.It happened last night that _____.
A.the city’s lights affected the meteor watching B.the meteors flew past before being noticed C.the city light show attracted many people D.the meteor watching ended up a social outing 2.What do the astronomers complain about? A.Meteor showers occur less often than before. B.Their observation equipment is in poor repair. C.Light pollution has remained unsolved for years. D.Their eyesight is failing due to artificial lighting. 3.What is the author concerned about according to Paragraph 4? A.Birds may take other migration paths. B.Animals’ living habits may change suddenly C.Varieties of animals will become sharply reduced D.Animals’ survival is threatened by outdoor lighting. 4.Lighting regulations in Flagstaff, Arizona are put into effect to _____. A.lessen the chance of getting cancer B.create an ideal observation condition C.ensure citizens a good sleep at night D.enable all creatures to live in harmony 5.What message does the author most want to give us? A.Saving wildlife is saving ourselves. B.Great efforts should be made to save energy. C.Human activities should be environmentally friendly. D.New equipment should be introduced for space study..
(5) Human remains of ancient settlements will be reburied and lost to science under a law that threatens research into the history of humans in Britain, a group of leading archeologists (考古学 家) says. In a letter addressed to the justice secretary, Ken Clarke, 40 archaeologists write of their “deep and widespread concern” about the issue. It centers on the law introduced by the Ministry of Justice in 2008 which requires all human remains unearthed in England and Wales to be reburied within two years, regardless of their age. The decision means scientists have too little time to study bones and other human remains of national and cultural significance. “Your current requirement that all archaeologically unearthed human remains should be reburied, whether after a standard period of two years or a further special extension, is contrary to basic principles of archaeological and scientific research and of museum practice,” they write. The law applies to any pieces of bone uncovered at around 400 dig sites, including the remains of 60 or so bodies found at Stonehenge in 2008 that date back to 3,000 BC.
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Archaeologists have been granted a temporary extension to give them more time, but eventuallly the bones will have to be returned to the ground.
The arrangements may result in the waste of future discoveries at sites such as Happisburgh in Norfolk, where digging is continuing after the discovery of stone tools made by early humans 950,000 years ago. If human remains were found at Happisburgh, they would be the oldest in northern Europe and the first indication of what this species was. Under the current practice of the law those remains would have to be reburied and effectively destroyed.
Before 2008, guidelines allowed for the proper preservation and study of bones of sufficient age and historical interest, while the Burial Act 1857 applied to more recent remains. The Ministry of Justice assured archaeologists two years ago that the law was temporary, but has so far failed to revise it.
Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at Sheffield University, said: “Archaeologists have been extremely patient because we were led to believe the ministry was sorting out this problem, but we feel that we cannot wait any longer.”
The ministry has no guidelines on where or how remains should be reburied, or on what records should be kept. 1.According to the passage, scientists are unhappy with the law mainly because ______.
A. it is only a temporary measure on the human remains B. it is unreasonable and thus destructive to scientific research C. it was introduced by the government without their knowledge D. it is vague about where and how to rebury human remains 2.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Temporary extension of two years will guarantee scientists enough time. B. Human remains of the oldest species were dug out at Happisburgh. C. Human remains will have to be reburied despite the extension of time. D. Scientists have been warned that the law can hardly be changed. 3.What can be inferred about the British law governing human remains? A. The Ministry of Justice did not intend it to protect human remains. B. The Burial Act 1857 only applied to remains uncovered before 1857. C. The law on human remains hasn’t changed in recent decades. D. The Ministry of Justice has not done enough about the law. 4.Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. New discoveries should be reburied, the government demands. B. Research time should be extended, scientists require. C. Law on human remains needs thorough discussion, authorities say. D. Law could bury ancient secrets for ever, archeologists warn.
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参考答案
(1)ACDBB (2)DBADC (3)BCBAD (4)ACDBC (5)BCDD
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