unit6 William Blake_图文

Sentimentalism
? In the middle of the 18th century, the enlightened people were discontent with social reality. They appealed to sentiment and turned to the countryside for material. They showed sincere sympathy for the poor peasants 感伤主义文学是18世纪60年代至80年代末发生在英 国的一股文学潮流。产业革命以后,现实矛盾加剧, 人们开始对理性社会产生怀疑,但又无可奈何,只 得寄希望于艺术和情感来表达对现实的不满和逃避。

?

? It reveals grief, pains and tears. The most outstanding figure of English sentimentalists are Laurence Sterne who wrote A Sentimental Journey(1768), which reveals a purely emotional approach to life on the part of the narrator. Thomas Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is also the model of sentimentalist poetry.

Thomas Gray
(1716—1771)

? Life:
The best poet in the “Graveyard School”

? Works:
An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

Graveyard School
(墓地派诗歌)

? Graveyard School refers to a school of poets of the 18th century whose poems are mostly devoted to a sentimental lamentation or meditation on life. Past and present, with death and graveyard as themes. Thomas Gray is considered to be the leading figure of this school and his Elegy written in a country churchyard is its most representative work.

? ? ? ?

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea, The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
晚钟响起来一阵阵给白昼报丧, 牛群在草原上迂回,吼声起落, 耕地人累了,回家走,脚步踉跄, 把整个世界留给了黄昏与我。

Pre-romanticism
? ? 1) 2) 3) 4) When did Pre-romanticism appear? in the latter half of the 18th century What are the main features of Pre-romanticism? Romantic Revival; Strong protest against the bondage of Classicism Claims of passion and emotion Renewed interests in medieval literature

Pre-romanticism
? Who are the representatives? William Blake and Robert Burns ? What’s the significance? marked the decline of classicism paved the way for the coming of romanticism in England

William Blake
(1757-1827)

? ? ? ?

To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower. Hold infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour. ---Auguries of Innocence

? 一沙一世界, 一花一天堂。 ? 双手握无限, 刹那是永恒。

天真的预兆
一颗沙里看出一个世界, 一花一世界, 一朵野花里一座天堂, 一沙一天国,

把无限放在你的手掌上,
君掌盛无边, 永恒在一刹那里收藏。

刹那含永劫。
——梁宗岱(译) ——李叔同(译)

佛曰:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 一花一世界, 一草一天堂, 一叶一如来, 一砂一极乐, 一方一净土, 一笑一尘缘, 一念一清静。
这一切都是一种心境。心若无物就 可以一花一世界,一草一天堂。参 透这些,一花一草便是整个世界, 而整个世界也便空如花草。

William Blake
? Painter ? Engraver ? First major “Romantic” poet

Biography
? Born in London on November 28, 1757. ? He was imaginative and prone to fantastic visions. ? Claimed to see visions of angels, spirits, and ghosts of kings and queens. First vision seen at ? age 4 (God at the window) ? age 9 (tree filled with angels) ? He also claimed that he had regular conversations with his deceased brother Robert.

Biography
? It was soon apparent that Blake’s internal world of imagination would be a prime motivator throughout his life. ? Noting something special in their son the Blakes were highly supportive of and encouraged his artistic creativity and thus began his education and development as an artist.

Biography

? At ten, Blake’s parents sent him to drawing school (Mr. Pars’ Drawing School in the Strand) after he expressed his desire to be an artist. ? Two years later, Blake began writing poetry. ? at the age of fourteen Blake started a seven year apprenticeship with engraver James Basire, the official engraver to the Society of Antiquaries.

Biography
? In 1782, Blake married Catherine Boucher. He taught her how to read, write and draw. They had no children. ? In 1783 Blake's Poetical Sketches were published
– expressed his disappointment for the feeble artificial and meagre achievement in poetry of his time; – showed contempt for the rule of reason then prevailing in English poetry and voiced his sympathy with the fresh spirit of Elizabethan poetry.

Biography
? In 1789 Blake completed The Songs of Innocence, and Songs of Experience in 1794. ? At the end of the decade Blake was commissioned into illustrating other artists’ works. However, Blake was never well off in this business and remained poor all his life.

Biography
? In 1827, Blake fell ill. His last drawing was a picture of Catherine, that he drew from his deathbed. He died on August 12 when he was 69 years old. He was buried in a grave in the dissenters’ graveyard at Bunhill fields.

His writing
? It is hard to classify Blake’s work in one genre, but he heavily influenced the Romantic poets with recurring themes of ? good and evil, ? heaven and hell, ? knowledge and innocence, ? external reality vs. inner.

His works:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Poetical Sketches 诗的素描 Songs of Innocence 天真之歌 The Book of Thel 塞尔书 The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 天堂和地狱的结合 Songs of Experience 经验之歌 Visions of the Daughters of Albion The Song of Los 罗斯之歌

Songs of Innocence/Experience

Songs of Innocence(1789)
? Using a language which even little babies can learn by heart ? Presenting a happy and innocent world without evils and sufferings ? Everything seems to be in pious harmony. ? However, in “The little black boy” and “The chimney sweeper”, we find racial discrimination and sufferings of the poor.

The Chimney Sweeper
A little black thing among the snow Crying ‘weep, weep” in notes of woe! “Where are thy father & mother? say?” “They are both gone up to the church to pray.”

“Because I was happy upon the heath, And smil’d among the winter’s snow; They clothed me in the clothes of death, And taught me to sing the notes of woe. “And because I am happy, & dance & sing, They think they have done me no injury, And are gone to praise God & his Priest & King, Who make up a heaven of our misery”.

a laughing child upon a cloud

Songs of Experience (1794)
? A much mature work ? Show the sufferings of the miserable ? It marks the poet’s progress in his outlook on life. To him, experience had brought a fuller sense of the power of evil, and of the great misery and pain of the people’s life. ? The symbol changes from the lamb to the tiger.

The lapsed soul weeping in the evening dew

? Songs of Innocence (19)
– – – – – – – The Shepherd The Lamb The Chimney Sweeper Holy Thursday Night Spring A Dream

Songs of Experience (26)
– – – – – – The Sick Rose The Tyger Ah! Sun-Flower The Lily London A Poison Tree

“The Lamb”

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t010/T010668A.jpg

Little lamb, who made thee Does thou know who made thee, Gave thee life, and bid thee feed By the stream and o'er the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing, woolly bright; Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice? Little lamb, who made thee? Does thou know who made thee?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

小羔羊,谁造就了你? 你是否知道谁造就了你? 祂给与你生命,给与你粮食 在河流边,在青草地。 给与了你欢乐的衣裳, 柔软,毛茸茸而明亮 给与了你这样温柔的声响 叫得所有的山谷欢声飞扬? 小羔羊,谁造就了你? 你是否知道谁造就了你?

Little lamb, I'll tell thee Little lamb, I'll tell thee! He is called by thy name, For He calls Himself a Lamb. He is meek, and He is mild, He became a little child. I a child, and thou a lamb, We are called by His name. Little lamb, God bless thee! Little lamb, God bless thee!

小羊羔,我告诉你, 小羊羔,我告诉你。 他就叫你的名字, 因为他就把自己称羔羊。 他温柔而谦恭, 变成了一个孩童。
我是个孩子,你是只羔羊, 我们都叫他的名字。 小羊羔,上帝保佑你! 小羊羔,上帝保佑你!

? In the first stanza, the speaker wonders who the lamb's creator is; Here we find a physical description of the lamb, seen as a pure and gentle creature. ? In the second stanza, the lamb is compared with the infant Jesus, as well as between the lamb and the speaker's soul. In the last two lines the speaker identifies the creator: God.

? ? ? ?

The diction is radically childish. The tone is joyful, bright and happy. Simple rhyme scheme : AA BB CC DD AA AA EF GG FE AA The layout is set up by two stanzas with a refrain.---give stability, show the perfectness of innocent world. ? Repetition helps to give the poem its song-like quality. The flowing soft vowel sounds contribute to this effect, and also suggest the bleating of a lamb or the lisping character of a child’s chant. ? Child's question and answer make the poem pure.

? He not only sings praise of gentle lamb, but also the mystical power that can create the lamb. The lamb is a metaphor for Jesus Christ, who is called the "The Lamb of God". Here the Infant Jesus, the child, and the lamb is one thing, and also the spirit of Innocence in all of us.

The Tyger

The tyger

? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright ? In the forests of the night, ? What immortal hand or eye ? Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

? 老虎!老虎!黑夜的森林 中 ? 燃烧着的煌煌的火光, ? 是怎样的神手或天眼 ? 造出了你这样的威武堂堂?

? In what distant deeps or skies ? Burnt the fire of thine eyes? ? On what wings dare he aspire?

? 你炯炯的两眼中的火 ? ? 燃烧在多远的天空或深渊? ? ? 他乘着怎样的翅膀搏击?

? What the hand, dare seize the fire?

? 用怎样的手夺来火焰?

? And what shoulder, & what art, ? Could twist the sinews of thy heart? ? And when thy heart began to beat, ? What dread hand? & what dread feet?

? 又是怎样的膂力,怎样的 技巧, ? 把你的心脏的筋肉捏成? ? 当你的心脏开始搏动时,

? 使用怎样猛的手腕和脚胫?

? What the hammer? what the chain?

? 是怎样的槌?怎样的链子? ? 在怎样的熔炉中炼成你的 脑筋? ? In what furnace was thy ? 是怎样的铁砧?怎样的铁 brain? 臂 ? What the anvil? what dread ? 敢于捉着这可怖的凶神?
grasp, ? Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

? When the stars threw down their spears ? And water'd heaven with their tears, ? Did he smile his work to see?

? 群星投下了他们的投枪。 ? 用它们的眼泪润湿了穹苍,

? 他是否微笑着欣赏他的作品?

? Did he who made the Lamb ? 他创造了你,也创造了羔羊? make thee?

? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, ? In the forests of the night: ? What immortal hand or eye,

? 老虎!老虎!黑夜的森林 中 ? 燃烧着的煌煌的火光,

? 是怎样的神手或天眼
? 造出了你这样的威武堂堂?

? Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

Questions for discussion
? What parts of the tiger have been described in the poem? ? What does the tiger stand for or symbolize? ? How to interpret the two lines “when the stars threw down their spears/ and water’d heaven with their tears”?

Question 1
? What parts of the tiger have been described in the poem? eyes: burning bright in darkness/ fiery figure: in fearful symmetry heart: hard to twist its sinews; sturdy brain: framed in furnace; strong

Question 2
? What does the tiger stand for or symbolize? a symbol of power, force and dread, of violence, mystery and terror. —the metaphor of experience, the contrary state of innocence. ……

Question 3
? How to interpret the two lines “when the stars threw down their spears/ and water’d heaven with their tears”? the process of making the tiger allusion (Satan’s revolt against God) French aristocrats defeated by people, cried for their loss.

? Summarize the musical beauty of the poem
trochaic (stressed syllable with unstressed syllable) to imitate the sound in a forge; alliteration (burning bright; etc.); regular end rhyme sounds rhythmical; repetition

The Lamb

The Tiger

? Symbolic meanings: symbolic meanings 1)beauty;2)strength;3)destructive force ? purity 4)mysterious force ? beauty 5)the way of the world: good and evil elements ? innocence are together, cannot be separated

? meekness ? gentleness ? image of Jesus Christ

? One common understanding of the two poems embraces traditional Christian theology. ? Jesus Christ is the Tyger, who, at the end of time, will in righteous wrath judge all people and punish sin and evil. ? On the other hand, Jesus is the “Lamb of God” who takes away the sins of the world, so for all who believe, he becomes the sacrificial lamb who died for sin, taking the judgment for sin on himself.

The Sick Rose
O Rose thou art sick. The invisible worm, That flies in the night In the howling storm: Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy: And his dark secret love Does thy life destroy.

已是暗夜沉沉, 狂风暴雨阵阵; 啊, 玫瑰虽已绽开, 却已得了重病。 一只无形飞虫, 钻入血红花心; 阴险偷情窃爱, 断送卿卿性命。

噢玫瑰,你病了! 那无形的飞虫 乘着黑夜飞来了 在风暴呼号中。 找到了你的床 钻进红色的欢欣; 他的黑暗而隐秘的爱 毁了你的生命

Summary
The speaker, addressing a rose, informs it that it is sick. An "invisible" worm has stolen into its bed in a "howling storm" and under the cover of night. The "dark secret love" of this worm is destroying the rose's life.

Commentary

While the rose exists as a beautiful natural object that has become infected by a worm, it also exists as a literary rose, the conventional symbol of love. The image of the worm reminds us of the Biblical serpent. Worms are earthbound, and symbolize death and decay. The "bed" into which the worm creeps denotes both the natural flowerbed and also the lovers' bed. The rose is sick, and the poem implies that love is sick as well. The rose may also represent female beauty and purity. The poem is about the destruction of purity (innocence) by evil.

Features of Blake’s poems
? ? ? ? ? 1.use of simple language 2. serious, somber themes 3. lyrical beauty 4. symbolism 5. mysticism

Other information
? 威廉· 布莱克( William Blake)是一位复杂的多重 人物。除了诗人身份外,他同时还是画家、雕刻 家。他艺术的一面影响另一面。他用自己发明的 方法,把写的诗和画的插图刻在铜板上,然后用 这种铜板印成书页,再给它们涂色。细读布莱克 的作品,我们可以发现,它们是由图像和文本结 合的整体。文本不仅仅是用来说明图画,图画也 不仅仅是用来表现原文。两者都需要解释性或推 测性的阅读。

Blake’s Etchings(蚀刻画)

“Ancient of Days”

“The Great Red Dragon and the Women Clothed with the Sun”

“Elohim Creating Adam”

“Good and Evil Angels”

“Michael Binding Satan”

“Satan Inflicting Boils Upon Job”

“Nebuchadnezzar “

“Pity”


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