牛津英语M6unit1Grammar and Usage_图文

Grammar and usage Overview of tenses 1 present tenses 1st period

Who is he? He is Zhao Benshan What does he do? He is a comedian.

What is he doing? He is performing.

What’s this? It’s the Great Wall in Beijing.

Have you ever visited it?
Yes, I have. I have visited it twice.

Have you ever stood on this stage?
No, I haven’t, but I have been looking forward to that day.

Do you want to study in this university? Yes, we have been expecting to study there for ages.

II. 现在时态基本形式 时态

主动

一般现在时 am/is/are; do/does 现在进行时 be (am/is/are) doing 现在完成时 have/has done 现在完成进 have/has been doing 行时

II. 现在时态基本形式 时态

被动

一般现在时 am/is/are done 现在进行时 am/is/are being done 现在完成时 have/has been done 现在完成进 行时 have/has been doing

the simple present tense:
? I am at a comedy show. ? The sun rises in the east.
…to talk about things that are true now or always true. (客观事实或 普遍真理)

? The Academy Awards show is on television every year. ? Every time a prop comedian tells a joke, he or she uses a thing, called a prop. …to talk about things that occur regularly.(经常发生的事情 )

? 1. My mother loves classical music.

Please match:

a.现在情况

? 2. My father visits his parents once a week. ? 3. When I was very young, my granny told me the earth is round and most rivers flow into seas and oceans.
? 4. Now I major in geography.

b.静态动词 c.客观真理 d.经常发生

Further study:
? Smith passes to Darvency, Davency to Barnes, Barnes to Lucas---and Harriet intercepts…Harriet to Simons, nice ball--and Smith shoots. (运动解说) ? First I put some butter into a frying pan and light the gas; then, while the butter is melting, I break three eggs into the bowl, like this. (演示说明)

? In the film Gold Rush, Chaplin and his friends are trapped in the snowstorm. He enjoys every mouthful of the leather shoe as if it is the most delicious meal he has ever had. (剧情介绍) ? ---How do I get to the station? ---You go straight to the traffic lights, then turn right. (用来指引道路)

Beckham Takes Football Movie Role.
贝克汉姆出演足球电影。

Former coach of Chinese men’s football team, Arie Haan, arrives at Beijing International Airport on Nov. 22,2004.
前中国男子足球队教练阿里-哈恩于2004年11月22日 抵达北京国际机场。

在报纸标题,图片说明中,用一般 现在时表示过去发生的动作。

Focus on:
? The exhibition ______on May 1st and opens closes ______ at the end of June. (open; close) ? The plane _________at 11:30 and takes off arrives ________ in Shanghai at 1:20.(take off; arrive) ? ______there a film on tonight? (be) Is 在口语中,一般现在时常可表示按规 定、时间表、计划或安排要发生的事 情,常有一个表示未来的时间状语。

当她来时 when she comes ? I’ll give her the notebook____________. in 万一你有麻烦 difficulty case you get into ? Tell me_________________________. no matter what ? He will keep the work ______________ 不管发生什么 happens ________.
在时间状语从句中、条件状语从句中、 让步状语从句中,用一般现在时表示 将来发生的动作或状态。

Here comes the bus.(车来了) =The bus is coming. There goes the bell.(铃响了) =The bell is ringing. 在倒装句中,用一般现在时 表示动作正在进行

? ? ? ? ?

She is out of danger now. 常常和一般现 在时一道用的 How are you today? 副词和状语 They are busy at the moment. They normally get up at six. Generally he watches TV for two hours in the evening. ? They pay me weekly.

Translation:
? 我叔叔从不来看我们。

? My uncle never visits us.
? 这儿很少下雪。

? It seldom snows here.
? 你老师给你们测验吗?

? Does the teacher ever give you tests?

Story-telling:
Use the following as many as possible.
(the simple present tense)

once in a while; now and then; nowadays; currently; at present; as a rule; 10---Excellent. seldom; ever 9---Wonderful. rarely; these days…
8---Very good. 7---O.K. 6---Not bad.

the present continuous tense:
? The audience is laughing at the joke. ? I don’t understand why I am not losing weight.
…to talk about actions that are happening or in progress now.(目前正在发生或

进行中的动作)

? The Comedy Club is giving a lecture about stand-up next month. ? They are going to the Academy Awards show in February.
…to talk about actions that are being planned , but will happen in the future.

(目前正在计划,而且将来会发生 的动作)

? You are always making the same mistakes! ? Sue is always changing her mind. …to talk about actions that happen repeatedly, used with always, usually with a negative connotation(涵义). (反复发生的,和always连用,通常

含有贬义)

Further study:
? How are you getting on with the work? ? You are making good progress.
常用于现在进行时 ? Are you staying in a hotel? ? I’m studying at an evening school. 现阶段正发生的事, 不一定说话时在进行

Further study:
? Who is going to cook the meal? ? Don’t mention this when you are talking about this problem. ? If she is still waiting there when you see her, tell her to go home. ? While you are traveling there, you must visit these places. 常用表示将来发生的事

通常不用进行时的动词
1,表示感觉的动词,如see, hear, smell, taste, feel, notice, look, appear 等

Tom looks pale, What’s wrong with him?
I see a plane flying in the sky. 当这些动词不表示感觉,而表示一个正在进行 的动作的时候,有进行时态。 Are you seeing someone off The cook is tasting the soup.

2. 表示感情的动词,如hate, love, fear, like, want, wish, prefer, refuse, forgive等。
I hate to say it, but you are mistaken. I fear that he will fail.

3.表示存在状态的动词,如 be, exist, remain, stay等
The true author of the book remains unknown.

Does life exist on Mars.

4.表示占有与从属的动词,如 have, possess, own, contain, belong to, consist of, form等
She possesses some valuable jewels. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

5.表示思考,理解等的动词,如 understand, know, believe, think, doubt, forget, remember 等
I understand what you said. I doubt the truth of it.

6.表示瞬间的动词
常见的瞬间动词有 come, go, get to/reach/arrive at, leave, buy, sell, get up, join/take part in, begin/start, lose, marry, borrow, lend

Further study:
? I’m driving along a country road and I’m completely lost. Then I see this old fellow. He is leaning against a gate. I stop the car and ask him the way.
现在进行时---提供了一个背景; 一般现在时---把情节往前推进。

Comparison:
? The idea sounds great. ? Why is the driver sounding his horn? see see ? I _____what you mean. is seeing ? He _________the doctor now. smell ? The roses _______nice. smell am smelling ? I ___________ the roses now.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Mistake-correcting (where necessary):

What are you thinking about? √ What are you think thinking of the film? do What are you looking for? √ You’relook looking quite well. Which judge is hearing the case? √ She doesn’t hear very well. √ We are having a discussion. √ Do Are you have any questions?

Using the Fill in the blanks: lie; stand;present tense/ fit; taste the present continuous tense:

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

are lying People _________on the beach. lies The city _____on the coast. He __________ on a rock. is standing stands His statue _______ in the city square. My father ________the parts together. is fitting fits The dress _____ my mother perfectly. tastes The wine _______ good. I am tasting the wine. _________

他频频点头。 他上下地跳着。 ? John is nodding his head. 他对我们表现得 ? He is jumping up and down. 友好之极。 ? He is being terribly friendly to us.

Translation:

? The train is arriving. ? The Boeing 747 is arriving. ? The old man is dying. 火车即将到达。 那架波音747即将到达。 老人病已垂危。

the present perfect tense:
? He has hosted the show eight times. ? Billy Crystal has been in many films and television shows.
…to talk about experiences that are repeated.(反复的经历)

? Doctors have found that people who laugh a lot live longer! ? Some stand-up comedians have become famous as television and film actors later on in life. …to talk about things that happened in the past, but have an effect on the present.(发生在过去,但对现在有 影响的事情)

? People have always enjoyed laughing. ? Comedians have always told jokes and performed comic acts.
…to talk about things that started in the past and are still happening now.

(从过去开始发生直到现在仍在发生 的事情)

Focus on:
?have gone / have been ? Tonny has gone _________abroad to continue his
studies. has been ? His girl friend _________abroad many times to see him.

Focus on:
?since /when/if live have lived We __________in England since I was a child. It _____ just a week since I met him. is be I’ll write to him when I _____________the have finished finish book. not go If she hasn’t gone bed when you see her, tell __________to her to give me a ring.

It is/has been +一段时间+since从句 since从句中一般用过去时

在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时 可以替代一般将来时。

Focus on:
?this morning/afternoon/season…

? I haven’t seen Tom this morning. ? I didn’t see Tom this morning. ? We have visited a lot of places this summer. ? We visited a lot of places this summer.

Focus on:

?time ? It’s the first time she has driven a car. ? That’s the third time he has phoned her this morning. ? It’s the first gold medal I’ve had for ages.

That/This/It is the first (second…) time that +完成时 That/This/It is the best/finest/most interesting…+that +完成时
This is the most interesting film that I have seen.

Story-telling:
Use the following as many as possible.
? already ever for just lately never recently since yet how long 10---Excellent. 9---Wonderful. 8---Very good. 7---O.K. 6---Not bad.

和现在完成时 一道用的时间 状语

the present perfect continuous tense:
? Doctors have been researching that question. ? The curtains finally open---the audience have been waiting an hour for the show to start. …to talk about actions that started in the past, have lasted up to now and will probably continue to happen.(谈论在过去

开始,而且有可能持续下去的动作)

Further study:
? Jim has been phoning Jenny every night for the past week. ? They have been meeting together weekly for two years.
在持续的一段时间内动作多次重复

Further study:
? Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? ? There you are! I’ve been waiting for an hour. ? She is very tired. She has been working all morning.

动作和现在的状况有联系

Further study:
? How long has she been reading the book? ? He has been watching English all day.

常与long/how long/all连用

Practice:
? 谁在喝我的酒? ? 谁喝了我的酒? Who has been drinking my wine? Who has drunk my wine?

Practice:

? 不累啊?你已跳了三个小时啦! Aren’t you tired? You have been jumping for three hours.

Practice:
? I have known ___________(认识)him for many years. have been married ? They ____________________(结婚) for twenty years. have been trying ? All these years we _______________(设法) to get in touch with you. have been thinking (考 ? All along we ___________________of 虑)coming to see you.

? A&B on page 9. ? C1& C2 on page 102 in Workbook. ? Write a passage based on what you’re watching.


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