No.1 Low Voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers_图文

1
May 2007

Technical Application Papers

1SDC007100G0203

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Technical Application Papers

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers
Index

A theoretical outline of selectivity
Introduction ............................................................. 2

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity

Selectivity ................................................................ 3 Total selectivity - Partial selectivity .......................... 3 Overload zone – Short-circuit zone ......................... 4 Real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers ...... 5

Main de?nitions

Current selectivity .................................................. 16 Time selectivity ...................................................... 17 Energy selectivity................................................... 18 Zone selectivity (T4L-T5L-T6L).............................. 19

ACB-MCCB Selectivity

Traditional solution ................................................ 25 Zone selectivity between Emax and Tmax ............ 26

Time-current selectivity ........................................... 7 Current selectivity .................................................... 8 Time selectivity ........................................................ 9 Energy selectivity................................................... 10 Zone selectivity ..................................................... 11

Selectivity techniques

ACB-ACB Selectivity

Time selectivity ...................................................... 28 Zone selectivity between Emax............................. 29 Directional time selectivity ..................................... 32 Directional zone selectivity .................................... 34 Appendix A: MV/LV selectivity ................................................... 40 Appendix B: General considerations regarding residual current selectivity ............................................................... 43 Appendix C: Example of LV/LV selectivity study ........................ 45 Appendix D: Further considerations regarding the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers .......................... 48 Glossary ............................................................... 52

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers
Types of ABB circuit-breakers ............................... 12

MCB Miniature Circuit-Breakers

Supply-side S200 / Load-side S200 ..................... 13 Supply-side S290D-S800D / Load-side S200 ...... 13

MCCB-MCB Selectivity

Supply-side T1-T2-T3-T4 / Load-side MCB ......... 14 Supply-side T5-T6-T7 / Load-side MCB ............... 15

1

Technical Application Papers

A theoretical outline of selectivity
Problems and requirements for the coordination of the protections
Selection of the protection system of the electrical installation is fundamental both to guarantee correct economical and functional service of the whole installation and to reduce the problems caused by abnormal service conditions or actual faults to a minimum. Within the sphere of this analysis, the coordination between the various devices dedicated to protection of sections of installation or speci?c components is studied in order to: – guarantee safety of the installation and of people in all cases; – rapidly identify and exclude just the area involved in the problem, without indiscriminate trips which reduce the availability of energy in areas not involved in the fault; – reduce the effects of the fault on other integral parts of the installation (reduction in the voltage value, and loss of stability in rotating machines); – reduce the stress on components and damage to the area involved; – guarantee service continuity with good quality power supply voltage; – guarantee adequate support in the case of malfunction of the protection delegated to opening; – provide the personnel in charge of maintenance and the management system with the information needed to restore service to the rest of the network as rapidly as possible and with the least interference; – achieve a good compromise between reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In detail, a good protection system must be able to: – perceive what has happened and where, discriminating between abnormal but tolerable situations and fault situations within its zone of competence, avoiding unwanted trips which cause unjusti?ed stoppage of a sound part of the installation; – act as rapidly as possible to limit the damage (destruction, accelerated ageing, etc.), safeguarding power supply continuity and stability. The solutions come from a compromise between these two antithetic requirements – precise identi?cation of the fault and rapid tripping - and are de?ned according to which requirement is privileged. For example, in the case where it is more important to prevent unwanted trips, an indirect protection system is generally preferred, based on interlocks and data transmission between different devices which locally measure the electrical values, whereas speeds and limitation of the destructive effects of the short-circuit require direct action systems with with protection releases integrated directly in the devices. In low voltage systems for primary and secondary distribution, the latter solution is normally preferred. With regard to the Italian Standard CEI 64-8 “Electrical user installations with rated voltage below 1000 V in alternating current and 1500 V in direct current” regarding low voltage installations, under Part 5 “Selection and installation of the electrical components” this states that: “Selectivity between protection devices against overcurrents (536.1) When several protection devices are placed in series and when the service needs justify it, their operating characteristics must be selected so as to disconnect only the part of the installation where the fault is.” Moreover, in the comments, the following is added: “The operating situations which require selectivity are de?ned by the customer or by the designer of the installation.” The Standard therefore states that the operating characteristics must be selected so as to have selectivity, when the service needs justify this. In general, designing a selective installation not only means realising a “state-of-the-art” project, but also designing a good installation which does, in fact, respond to the customer’s requirements, not simply to the aspects of the Standards.

2 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Main de?nitions
Selectivity
The de?nition of selectivity is given by the IEC 60947-1 Standard “Low voltage equipment - Part 1: General rules for low voltage equipment” “Trip selectivity (for overcurrent) (441-17-15) Coordination between the operating characteristics of two or more overcurrent protection devices, so that when an overcurrent within established limits occurs, the device destined to operate within those limits trips whereas the others do not trip” where by overcurrent a current of a higher value than the rated current is intended, due to any cause (overload, short-circuit, etc.). There is therefore selectivity between two circuit-breakers in series when, for an overcurrent which passes through both, the load-side circuit-breaker opens thereby protecting the circuit, whereas the supply-side one remains closed guaranteeing power supply to the rest of the installation. The de?nitions of total selectivity and partial selectivity are, on the other hand, given in Part 2 of the same Standard IEC 60947-2 “Low voltage Equipment - Part 2: Circuit-breakers” “Total selectivity (2.17.2) Overcurrent selectivity where, in the presence of two protection devices against overcurrent in series, the loadside protection device carries out the protection without making the other device trip.” “Partial selectivity (2.17.3) Overcurrent selectivity where, in the presence of two protection devices against overcurrent in series, the load-side protection device carries out the protection up to a given level of overcurrent, without making the other device trip.” One can speak of total selectivity when there is selectivity for any overcurrent value possible in the installation. Between a pair of circuit-breakers, one speaks of total selectivity when there is selectivity up to the lesser of the Icu values of the two circuit-breakers, since the maximum prospective short-circuit current of the installation will in any case be less or equal to the smallest of the Icu values of the two circuit-breakers. One talks about partial selectivity when there is only selectivity up to a certain Is current value (ultimate selectivity value). If the current exceeds this value, selectivity between the two circuit-breakers will no longer be guaranteed. Between a pair of circuit-breakers, one speaks about partial selectivity when there is selectivity up to a certain Is value below the Icu values of the two circuit-breakers. If the maximum prospective short-circuit current of the installation is lower than or equal to the Is selectivity value, one can still speak of total selectivity.

A theoretical outline of selectivity

Example

The following two circuit-breakers are considered: On the supply side T4N250 PR221 In250 (Icu=36kA) On the load side S294 C 100 (Icu=15kA) From the “Coordination Tables” publication it can be seen that there is total selectivity (T) between the two circuit-breakers. This means that there is selectivity up to 15kA, i.e. the lower of the two Icu values. Obviously, the maximum possible short-circuit current at the point of installation of the S294 C 100 circuit-breaker will be less than or equal to 15kA. Now the following two circuit-breakers are considered: On the supply side T4N250 PR221 In160 (Icu=36kA) On the load side S294 C 100 (Icu=15kA) From the “Coordination Tables” publication it can be seen that the selectivity value is Is=12kA between the two circuit-breakers. This means that, if the maximum prospective short-circuit current on the load-side of the S294 C 100 circuit-breaker is less than 12kA, there will be total selectivity, whereas if the short-circuit current has a higher value, there will be partial selectivity, i.e. only for the faults with a current below 12kA, whereas for faults between 12 and 15 kA non-tripping of the supply-side circuit-breaker is not guaranteed.
T4N 250 PR221DS-LS/I

S 294 C 100

Tmax T4 - S290 @ 400/415 V
Supply T4 side Version N,S H,L,V Release TM, M EL 250 320 250 Iu [A] In [A] 160 200 250 320 160 250 80 5 11 T T T T 100 5* 8 12 T T T 125 8* 12 T T 80 5 11 T T T T 100 8 12 T T T

Load-side Charact. Icu [kA] C-K S290 C D 15

320 320 T T T T T

* Value valid with magnetic only circuit-breaker on the suppy side

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

3

Technical Application Papers

Main de?nitions
Overload zone – Short-circuit zone A theoretical outline of selectivity
For the purposes of the selectivity analysis made in this publication, the concepts of “overload zone” and “shortcircuit zone” are introduced. By “overload zone” one means the ranges of current values, and therefore the relative part of the circuitbreaker trip curves coming between the rated current of the circuit-breaker itself and 8-10 times this value. This is the zone in which the thermal protection for thermomagnetic releases and protection L for electronic releases are normally called on to intervene. These currents usually correspond to a circuit where a load results to be overloaded. This event is likely to occur more frequently than a real fault. By “short-circuit zone” one means the ranges of current values, and therefore the relative part of the trip curves of the circuit-breaker, which are 8-10 times higher than the rated current of the circuit-breaker. This is the zone in which the magnetic protection for thermomagnetic releases or protections S, D and I for electronic releases are normally called on to intervene. These current values usually correspond to a fault on the supply circuit. This event is most unlikely than a simple overload.

Overload Zone = In ÷ 8-10In
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

Short-circuit Zone = > 8-10In

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

4 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers
When the time-current curves of two circuit-breakers are compared, one is often led to assess the trip times of the two devices as if they were passed through by the same current. This consideration is only true when, between the two circuit-breakers placed in series, there are no other shunts, i.e. there is a single incoming and a single outgoing feeder which insist on the same node. When, on the other hand, there are several supply-side circuit-breakers which insist on the same busbar or several outgoing feeders on the load side, the currents

which pass through the apparatus can be even considerably different. With regard to the real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers, the three main cases which can be considered are as follows: - a single circuit-breaker on the supply side of a single circuit-breaker on the load side (passed through by the same current) - a single circuit-breaker on the supply side of several circuit-breakers on the load side (supply-side circuitbreaker passed through by a current higher than that of the load-side circuit-breaker) - two or more circuit-breakers on the supply side and several circuit-breakers on the load side.

A theoretical outline of selectivity

tA

A

IA=IB
B

tB

IA=IB

tA

A

tB

IA=IB+Iloads
B

IB

IA

A

tA

IA=(IB+Iloads)/n
B

tB

A B IB is the overcurrent which passes through circuit-breaker B IA is the overcurrent which passes through circuit-breaker A Iloads is the sum of the currents which, during normal operation, is consumed by the loads (excluding B) supplied by the supply-side circuit-breaker A. This sum can, if necessary, be corrected with suitable contemporaneity and use factors n is the number of circuit-breakers placed in parallel on the power supply side.

Where:

I

I

* These formulas do not take into account the different phase displacement of the currents or any asymmetry of the circuit; the ?rst two formulas are however conservative and the third one is acceptable when the two supply circuits are equal.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

5

Technical Application Papers

Selectivity techniques
This section describes the different selectivity techniques and their area of application.

A theoretical outline of selectivity

In the overload zone with the protections in play, time-current type selectivity is usually realised. In the short-circuit zone with the protections in play, various selectivity techniques can be used. In particular, the following will be illustrated in the paragraphs below: current selectivity time selectivity energy selectivity zone selectivity. After an initial theoretical description of the different selectivity techniques, the selectivity technique which can be used appropriately for the different types of circuit-breakers will then be analysed.

6 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Time-current selectivity
In general, the protections against overload have a de?nite time characteristic, whether they are made by means of a thermal release or by means of function L of an electronic release. A de?nite time characteristic is intended as a trip characteristic where, as the current increases, the trip time of the circuit-breaker decreases. When there are protections with characteristics of this

type, the selectivity technique used is time-current selectivity. Time-current selectivity makes trip selectivity by adjusting the protections so that the load-side protection, for all possible overcurrent values, trips more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker. When the trip times of the two circuit-breakers are analysed, it is necessary to consider: - the tolerances over the thresholds and trip times - the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers.

A theoretical outline of selectivity

Operatively speaking

With regard to the tolerances, ABB SACE makes the trip curves of their releases available in the technical catalogues and in the DOCWin software. In particular, in the curve module of the DOCWin software, the curves of both the electronic and thermomagnetic releases include the tolerances. A release trip is therefore shown by two curves, one which indicates the highest trip times (top curve), and the other which indicates the most rapid trip times (bottom curve). For a correct analysis of selectivity, the worst conditions must be considered, i.e.: - the supply-side circuit-breaker trips according to its own bottom curve - the load-side circuit-breaker trips according to its own top curve With regard to the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers: - if the two circuit-breakers are passed through by the same current, it is suf?cient for there to be no overlapping between the curve of the supply-side circuit-breaker and the curve of the load-side circuit-breaker; - if the two circuit-breakers are passed through by different currents, it is necessary to select a series of signi?cant points on the time current curves and check that the trip times of the supply-side protection are always higher than the corresponding times of the load side protection. In particular, in the case of circuit-breakers equipped with electronic releases, since the trend of the curves is at I2t=const, to carry out the check correctly, it is suf?cient to examine two current values: 1.05 x I11 of the supply-side circuit-breaker (value below which the supply-side protection never intervenes) (value above which the load-side protection certainly trips with the protections against 1.20XI3 (or I2)2 of the load-side circuit-breaker short-circuit) Time-current Selectivity 1.05 x I1 of the supply-side circuit-breaker Assuming IA =1.05xI1, with reference to what has been said about A 103s the real currents which circulate in the circuit-breakers, the IB current is obtained on the load side. 102s The trip times of the two devices are obtained from the time-current curves.
10s B

A

1s 10-1s

B 1.20XI3 (or I2) of the load-side circuit-breaker Assuming IB = 1.20XI3 (or I2), the IA current is obtained in the same way on the supply side and, from the time-current curves, the trip times of the two devices are obtained. If the following is true for both the points considered: tA>tB then selectivity in the overload zone is guaranteed.
0.1s In the ?gure at the side an absorption of current from other loads has been assumed

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

100kA

Time-current Selectivity
1E3s 100s 10s 1s B A

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

100kA

1 1.05 is the value for minimum de?nite non-intervention dictated by the Standard (IEC60947-2). For some types of circuit-breakers this value could vary (see the technical catalogue for further information). 2 1.2 is the value for maximum de?nite intervention for protection against short-circuit dictated by the Standard (IEC60947-2). For some types of circuitbreakers this value could be lower (see the technical catalogue for further information).

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

7

Technical Application Papers

Selectivity techniques
Current selectivity A theoretical outline of selectivity
This type of selectivity is based on the observation that the closer the fault point is to the power supply of the installation, the higher the short-circuit current is. It is therefore possible to discriminate the zone the fault occurred in by setting the instantaneous protections to different current values. Total selectivity can normally be achieved in speci?c cases only where the fault current is not high and where there is a component with high impedance interposed between the two protections (transformer, very long cable or a cable with reduced cross-section, etc.) and therefore a great difference between the short-circuit current values. This type of coordination is therefore used above all in the distribution terminal (low rated current and short-circuit current values, and high impedance of the connection cables). The time-current trip curves of the devices are normally used for this study. It is intrinsically fast (instantaneous), easy to realise and economical. However: – the ultimate selectivity current is usually low and therefore selectivity is often only partial; – the setting level of the protections against overcurrents rises rapidly; redundancy of the protections, which guarantees – elimination of the fault (rapidly) in the case of one of them not operating, is not possible. It is a type of selectivity which can also be made between circuit-breakers of the same size and without protection against delayed short-circuit (S).

Operatively speaking
– The protection against short-circuit of supply-side circuit-breaker A will be set to a value which means it does not trip for faults which occur on the load side of protection B. (In the example in the ?gure I3minA > 1kA) – The protection of load-side circuit-breaker B will be set so as not to trip for faults which occur on its load side. (In the example in the ?gure I3MaxB < 1kA) Obviously the setting of the protections must take into account the real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers. Current Selectivity The ultimate selectivity value which can be obtained is equal to the instantaneous trip threshold of the supply-side protection less any tolerance. Is = I3minA 1kA 3kA A Cable

B

103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1kA 1kA A

Is

B

10kA

Note This selectivity limit, linked to the magnetic threshold of the supply-side circuitbreaker, is exceeded in all cases where energy type selectivity is realised. If the settings indicated for energy selectivity are respected for the combinations of circuit-breakers with an energy selectivity value given in the coordination tables published by ABB, the selectivity limit to be taken into consideration is the one given in the tables and not the one which can be obtained using the formula given above.

8 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Time selectivity
This type of selectivity is an evolution of the previous one. In this type of coordination, apart from the trip threshold in terms of current, a trip time is also de?ned: a certain current value will make the protections trip after a de?ned time delay, suitable for allowing any protections placed closer to the fault to trip, excluding the area which is the seat of the fault. The setting strategy is therefore to progressively increase the current thresholds and the trip delays as one gets closer to the power supply sources (level of setting directly correlated to the hierarchical level). The delayed trip thresholds must take into account the tolerances of the two protection devices and the effective currents which circulate in them. The difference between the delays set for the protections in series must take into account the fault detection and elimination times of the device on the load side and of the inertia time (overshoot) of the device on the supply side (time interval during which the protection can trip

even when the phenomenon is over). As in the case of current selectivity, the study is made by comparing the time-current trip curves of the protection devices. Generally this type of coordination: - is easy to study and realise; - is not very costly with regard to the protection system; - allows even high selectivity limit values to be obtained (if Icw is high); - allows redundancy of the protection functions. However: - the trip times and energy levels let through by the protections, especially by those close to the sources, are high. It is a type of selectivity which can also be made between circuit-breakers of the same size, equipped with electronic releases with delayed protection against short-circuit.

A theoretical outline of selectivity

Operatively speaking
The protections against short-circuit of the two circuit-breakers will be set: - with the I2 trip thresholds against delayed short-circuit adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. - with t2 trip times adjusted so that the load-side circuit-breaker B extinguishes the fault whereas the supply-side circuit-breaker A, still in the timing phase, manages to “see” the extinction of the current and therefore remains closed. A

B

Time Selectivity The ultimate selectivity limit which is obtained is equal: – to the instantaneous trip threshold of the supply-side protection, if this function is enabled, less any tolerance: Is = I3minA – to the value of Icw for supply-side air circuit-breakers when the instantaneous protection function is set to OFF.
104s 103s 102s 10s Note These selectivity limits are exceeded in all the cases where energy type selectivity is realised. If the settings indicated for energy selectivity are respected for the combinations of circuit-breakers with an energy selectivity value given in the coordination tables published by ABB, the selectivity limit to be taken into consideration is the one given in the tables and not the one which can be obtained from the considerations made in this paragraph. 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1kA 1kA 10kA 100kA B A Is

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

9

Technical Application Papers

Selectivity techniques
Energy selectivity A theoretical outline of selectivity
Coordination of energy type is a particular type of selectivity which exploits the current-limiting characteristics of moulded-case circuit-breakers. It is pointed out that a current-limiting circuit-breaker is “a circuit-breaker with a suf?ciently short trip time to prevent the short-circuit current from reaching the peak value which would otherwise be reached” (IEC 60947-2). In practice, all the ABB SACE moulded-case circuitbreakers of the Tmax series, the modular circuit-breakers and the E2L E3L air current-limiting circuit-breakers have more or less marked current-limiting characteristics. Under short-circuit conditions, these circuit-breakers are extremely fast (trip times in the region of a few milliseconds) and open when there is a strong asymmetrical component. It is therefore not possible to use the timecurrent trip curves of the circuit-breakers, obtained with symmetrical sinusoidal types of wave forms, for the coordination study. The phenomena are mainly dynamic (therefore proportional to the square of the instantaneous current value) and are heavily dependent on the interaction between the two pieces of apparatus in series. Therefore the energy selectivity values cannot be determined by the end user. The manufacturers make tables, slide-rules and calculation programmes available where the ultimate current selectivity values of Is under short-circuit between different combinations of circuit-breakers are given. These values are de?ned by theoretically integrating the results of tests carried out in compliance with what is indicated in Annex A of the IEC 60947-2 Standard.

Operatively speaking
The protections against short-circuit of the two circuit-breakers must respect the conditions given below. - Supply-side release of thermomagnetic type the magnetic trip thresholds must be such so as not to create trip overlapping, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers; the magnetic threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker must be equal to or higher than10xIn or set to the maximum value when it is adjustable. - Supply-side release of electronic type any protections against delayed short-circuit S must be adjusted following the same indications as time selectivity; the instantaneous protection function I of the supply-side circuit-breakers must be set to off I3=OFF The Is ultimate selectivity limit obtained is the one given in the tables which ABB SACE makes available to the customer. A
Supply side Version Release Load side In [A] In [A] 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 400 25 25 25 20 25 25 25 20 TM 630 25 25 25 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 T5 N,S,H,L,W LL 400 630 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20

A

B

Energy Selectivity

103s A 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s B Is

N

B
T3 TM 160

S

25 25 25 20

25 25 25 20

25 25 25 20 20

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

10 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Zone selectivity
This type of coordination is an evolution of time coordination. In general, zone selectivity is made by means of dialogue between the current measuring devices which, once the setting threshold has been detected as having been exceeded, allows just the fault zone to be identi?ed correctly and the power supply to it to be cut off. It can be realised in two ways: – the measuring devices send the information linked to the current setting threshold having been exceeded to a supervision system and the latter identi?es which protection has to intervene; – when there are current values higher than their setting, each protection sends a lock signal by means of a direct connection or a bus to the hierarchically higher level protection (on the supply side in relation to the power ?ow direction) and, before intervening, checks that a similar lock signal has not arrived from the load-side protection. In this way only the protection immediately to the supply side of the fault intervenes. The second case allows de?nitely shorter trip times. Compared with coordination of the time type, the need to increase the intentional delay as one moves towards the power supply source is no longer necessary. The

delay can be reduced to the time needed to exclude the presence of a possible lock signal coming from the load-side protection. This is a type of selectivity suitable for radial networks and, when associated with the directional protection, also suitable for meshed networks. Compared with coordination of time type, zone selectivity allows: - reduction of the trip times (these can be lower than hundred milliseconds); - reduction both of the damage caused by the fault and of interferences to the power supply system; - reduction of the thermal and dynamic stresses on the components of the installation; - a very high number of selectivity levels to be obtained. However: - it is more burdensome both in terms of cost and of complexity of the installation - it requires an auxiliary supply. This solution is therefore mainly used in systems with high rated current and short-circuit current values, with safety and service continuity requirements which are both binding: in particular, there are often examples of logical

A theoretical outline of selectivity

Operatively speaking

This is a type of selectivity which can be realised: - between Emax air circuit-breakers equipped with PR122 and PR123 releases. The ultimate selectivity limit which can be obtained is equal to the Icw Is = Icw - between Tmax T4L,T5L and T6L moulded-case circuit-breakers equipped with PR223 EF releases. The ultimate selectivity limit which can be obtained is 100kA Is = 100kA Then, by means of the additional IM210 module, it is possible to make a chain of zone selectivity between Tmax and Emax. It is also possible to realise a selectivity chain including ABB MV protections. The operating principle of zone selectivity between ABB circuit-breakers is as follows: When there are current values higher than their setting, each protection sends a lock signal by means of a direct connection or a bus to the hierarchically higher level protection (on the supply side in relation to the power ?ow direction) and, before intervening, checks that a similar lock signal has not arrived from the load-side protection. In this way only the protection immediately to the supply side of the fault intervenes.

A remains closed B opens

A opens B remains closed

A

A

B
Fault current Lock signal

B
Fault current Lock signal

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

11

Technical Application Papers

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers
How to obtain selectivity with the different types of ABB circuit-breakers will be analysed in details in the next chapters. Each chapter is dedicated to a particular combination of circuit-breakers and to the methods to realise selectivity between them.This pubblication gives indications for rapid selection of the circuit-breaker adjustments in order to obtain selectivity. These indications about adjustments of the releases are generally valid and are used for rapid selection of the settings. For speci?c combinations of circuit-breakers and for speci?c installation conditions, ABB SACE may provide indications which do not respect the rules given in this document. Here is a short description of the different types of ABB circuit-breakers taken into consideration in this publication.

Types of ABB circuit-breakers
MCB Miniature Circuit-Breakers
These are the System Pro-M series of circuit-breakers. They are equipped with thermomagnetic releases whose trip characteristics conform to the IEC60898 Standard and to the DIN VDE 0660 Standard. These circuit-breakers have the breaking capacity (Icu) complying with the Standard IEC 60947-2 and the energy selectivity limits refer to this Standard.

MCCB Moulded-Case Circuit-Breakers
These are the Tmax series of circuit-breakers. They can be equipped with thermomagnetic or electronic releases. The most advanced electronic release of the Tmax series is the PR223EF which allows zone selectivity to be realised between moulded-case circuit-breakers.

ACB Air Circuit-Breakers
These are the Emax series of circuit-breakers. They can be equipped with electronic releases. The most advanced electronic releases of the Emax series are the PR122/P, which allows zone selectivity to be realised, and the PR123/P which, apart from zone selectivity, also allows directional zone selectivity to be realised.

12 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

MCB-MCB Selectivity
These are circuit-breakers with a thermomagnetic release and therefore neither time selectivity let alone zone selectivity is possible. The two selectivity techniques which can be used are current selectivity and energy selectivity. Depending on the type of MCB on the supply side, either one or the other can be realised.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Only current type selectivity can be looked for between two circuit-breakers of the S200 series. In particular, the following prescriptions are valid: - In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the effective currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. In the short-circuit zone given that the following are: I3minA the lowest magnetic threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker A I3MaxB the highest magnetic threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker B IkB the maximum prospective short-circuit current on the load side of B Energy selectivity between S200 D40 and S200 C10 If the following relationships are veri?ed: I3minA > IkB A I3MaxB < IkB one can talk about total selectivity. Cable Otherwise there will be partial selectivity and the ultimate selectivity limit will be: Is = I3minA IkB B This is assuming that the magnetic trip thresholds of the supply-side circuit-breaker and of the load-side circuit-breaker do not create trip overlapping, taking into consideration the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers.
10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 103s Is 102s

Supply-side S200 / Load-side S200

A B

0.1kA

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

Supply-side S290D-S800D / Load-side S200

Between the S800 curve D or S290 curve D circuit-breakers on the supply side and the circuit-breakers of the S200 series on the load side, ABB SACE provides selectivity tables which give the values of energy selectivity. In particular, for the values of the tables to be considered valid, the following prescriptions are valid: - in the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. - in the short-circuit zone, the lower magnetic trip threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker and the upper magnetic trip threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker must be such so as not to create trip overlapping, taking into consideration the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers.

Energy selectivity between S290 D100 and S200L C25
103s Is 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

A B

0.1kA

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

A
Supply side

A
Load side

Characteristic Icu [kA] In [A] 6-8 10 13 16 20 25 32 40

S290 D 15 80 T 5 4.5 4.5 3.5 3.5 100 T T T T 5 5 4.5 32 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

S800N-S D 36-50 40 50 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.1 0.9 63 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.1

B B The Is ultimate selectivity limit which is obtained is the one given in the tables which ABB SACE makes available to the customer

S200L

C

5

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

13

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCB Selectivity
The case where selectivity is looked for between a moulded-case circuit-breaker on the supply side and a modular circuit-breaker on the load side is now analysed. In this case, thanks to the different size of the two circuit-breakers, it is always possible to obtain energy selectivity.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Supply-side T1-T2-T3-T4 / Load-side MCB

In the “Coordination Tables” publication, there are tables with circuit-breakers of the Tmax T1, T2, T3 and T4 series on the supply side of the modular circuit-breakers of the S200, S290 and S800 series. The energy selectivity values given are valid once the conditions described below are veri?ed. Overload zone In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers. Short-circuit zone Supply-side circuit-breaker of thermomagnetic type The magnetic trip threshold must be: - higher than or equal to 10xIn when the magnetic threshold is ?xed (TMD) - set to the maximum value when the magnetic threshold is adjustable (TMA) - such so as not to create trip overlapping with the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Supply-side circuit-breaker of electronic type The instantaneous protection function I must be set to OFF I3=OFF The I2 current threshold of function S, less any tolerance, must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the upper magnetic threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker I3MaxB, taking into consideration the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. With regard to the t2 trip time of function S: t2A ≥ 100ms both with I2t=const as well with t=const

A

B Selectivity between T2160 PR221 In100 and S280 C50
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1kA 1kA 10kA Is

A B

The Is ultimate selectivity limit which is obtained is the one given in the “Coordination Tables” publication
Supply side Version Release Iu [A] Load side Charact. Icu [kA] In [A] ≤2 C 3 4 6 25 8 10 13 S200P B-C 16 20 25 32 12.5 T 15 15 5.5* 16 T 15 15 5.5 20 T 15 15 5.5 5.5 3* 3* 25 T 15 15 5.5 5.5 3 32 T 15 15 5.5 5.5 3 3 3* 3* 40 T 15 15 5.5 5.5 3 3 3 50 T 15 15 5.5 5.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 3 3* 3* 63 T 15 15 10.5 10.5 7.5 7.5 5 5 5 TM,M 160 80 T 15 15 15 15 8.5 7.5 7.5 6 6 6 5.5* 3* 100 T 17 17 17 17 17 12 12 10 10 7.5 7.5 5* 5* 125 T T T T T T 20 20 15 15 12 12 7.5 160 T T T T T T T T T T T T 10.5 10.5 10 T T T 25 T T T T T T T 63 T T T T T T T T T T T T2 N,S,H,L EL

A

100 T T T T T T T T T T T T 10.5

160 T T T T T T T T T T T T 10.5 10.5

B

15

40 50 63

14 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Supply-side T5-T6-T7 / Load-side MCB

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

With the Tmax T5, T6 and T7 moulded-case circuit-breakers and the modular circuit-breakers on the load side, there is always total selectivity if the conditions described below are veri?ed. Overload zone In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers. Short-circuit zone Supply-side circuit-breaker of thermomagnetic type The magnetic trip threshold must be: - higher than or equal to 10xIn when the magnetic threshold is ?xed (TMD) - set to the maximum value when the magnetic threshold is adjustable (TMA) - such so as not to create trip overlapping with the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Supply-side circuit-breaker of electronic type The instantaneous protection function I must be set to OFF I3=OFF The I2 current threshold of function S, less any tolerance, must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the upper magnetic threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker I3MaxB, taking into consideration the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. With regard to trip time t2 of function S: t2A ≥ 100ms both with I2t=const as well with t=const

A

B

Selectivity between T5N400 PR221In320 and S284 D63
104s 103s 102s Is

A
10s

B
1s 10-1s 10-2s

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

The Is ultimate selectivity limit is the lesser between the breaking capacity of the supply-side circuit-breaker and the breaking capacity of the load-side circuit-breaker. With reference to the example given in the ?gure above S284D63 T5N400 there is therefore Icu = 15kA Icu = 36kA Is = 15kA

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

15

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity
The case where selectivity is looked for between two moulded-case circuit-breakers is now analysed. In this case, different techniques can be used to obtain selectivity between the circuit-breakers: current selectivity for combinations of circuit-breakers which do not have an energy selectivity value when an element with high impedance is placed between the two time selectivity for combinations of circuit-breakers which do not have an energy selectivity value and the supply-side circuitbreaker is equipped with an electronic release energy selectivity for the combinations given in the “Coordination Tables” publication zone selectivity for Tmax circuit-breakers equipped with PR223EF releases

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Current selectivity

Looking for current selectivity between moulded-case circuit-breakers may be necessary when there are circuit-breakers of the same size which do not have energy selectivity values in the tables. In any case, only low selectivity values in the order of a maximum of 10 times the In rated current of the release on the supply side can be obtained. To obtain the current type of selectivity, the following prescriptions must be respected: In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the effective currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. In the short-circuit zone given that the following are: I3minA the lower magnetic threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker A I3MaxB the upper magnetic threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker B IkB the maximum prospective short-circuit current on the load side of B Current selectivity between T4N250 TMA250 and T4N250 TMA80
104s 103s Is

A If the following relationships are true: I3minA > IkB I3MaxB < IkB one can speak of total selectivity. Otherwise there will be partial selectivity and the ultimate selectivity limit will be: Is = I3minA This is assuming that the magnetic trip thresholds of the supply-side circuit-breaker and of the load-side circuit-breaker do not create trip overlapping, taking into consideration the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers.
102s 10s

A

B
1s 10-1s 10-2s

Cable

IkB B

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

16 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Time selectivity

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Looking for current selectivity between moulded-case circuit-breakers may be necessary when there are circuit-breakers of the same size which do not have energy selectivity values in the tables and the supplyside circuit-breaker is equipped with an electronic release with function S (T2-T4-T5-T6-T7). In any case, only low selectivity values in the order of a maximum of 10-12 times the rated uninterrupted current Iu of the supply-side circuit-breaker can be obtained. To obtain the time type of selectivity, the following prescriptions must be respected: In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuitbreakers. In the short-circuit zone - the I2A current threshold of function S of the supply-side circuit-breaker must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the current threshold of the protection against short-circuit (I3 or I2) of the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers - with regard to trip time t2 of function S, the settings of the MCCBs on the supply side are indicated below according to the setting/type of MCCB on the load side: when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is higher than an instantaneous protection of the load-side circuit-breaker (magnetic, I3=ON or self-protection) the following is valid: t2A≥ 150ms if I2t =const t2A≥ 100ms if t =const when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is only higher than the I2B threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker, by using curves with the same characteristics, the following is valid: t2A - tolerance ≥ t2B + tolerance + 50ms Time selectivity between two T4
104s 103s 102s Is

A

B

B
10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

A

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

This relationship must be respected when, through the dialogue or the PR010T unit, electronic settings are used. In the more frequent case - use of the available settings through dip-switches - the values given in the following tables must be complied with: t2 times set MCCB on the supply side MCCB on the load side t2A=250 t2B=50 t2A=250 t2B=100 t2A =500 t2B =250

Note The indications about the adjustments of the releases are valid in general and useful for a rapid choice of setting guaranteing selectivity. For speci?c combinations of circuit-breakers and for speci?c installation conditions, ABB SACE may provide indications which do not respect the rules given in this document, but however able to ensure selectivity.

The ultimate selectivity limit is equal to the istantaneus trip threshold I3 of the upstream circuit-breaker minus the tollerance Is = I3minA

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

17

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity
ABB SACE makes selectivity tables available to the customer which provide the energy selectivity values at 415V between the possible combinations of moulded-case circuit-breakers. Since the moulded-case circuit-breakers can be equipped with thermomagnetic and electronic releases which are both adjustable, it is necessary for the user to carry out some checks in order to obtain selectivity up to the short-circuit current value given in the tables. In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuitbreaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. In the short-circuit zone Supply-side circuit-breaker of thermomagnetic type (T1-T2-T3-T4-T5-T6) The magnetic trip threshold must be: - higher than or equal to 10xIn when the magnetic threshold is ?xed (TMD) - set to the maximum value when the magnetic threshold is adjustable (TMA). - such so as not to create trip overlapping with the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the effective currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Supply-side circuit-breaker of electronic type (T2-T4-T5-T6-T7) - the instantaneous protection function I must be set to OFF I3=OFF - trip threshold I2A of the supply-side circuit-breaker must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the trip threshold of the protection against short-circuit (I3 or I2) of the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers - with regard to trip time t2 of function S, the settings of the MCCBs on the supply side are indicated below according to the setting/type of MCCB on the load side: when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is higher than an instantaneous protection of the load-side circuit-breaker (magnetic, I3=ON or self-protection) the following is valid: t2A≥ 150ms if I2t =const t2A≥ 100ms if t =const when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is only higher than threshold I2B of the load-side circuit-breaker, by using curves with the same characteristics, the following is valid: t2A - tolerance ≥ t2B + tolerance + 50ms

Energy selectivity

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

A

B

Energy selectivity between thermomagnetic MCCB
103s Is 102s

A
10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

B

Energy selectivity between electronic MCCB
103s Is 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1kA 1kA 10kA

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

A B

This relationships must be respected when, through the dialogue or the PR010T unit, electronic settings are used. In the more frequent case - use of the available settings through dip-switches - the values given in the following tables must be complied with: t2 times set MCCB on the supply side MCCB on the load side t2A=250 t2B=50 t2A=250 t2B=100 t2A =500 t2B =250

Note: The indications about the adjustments of the releases are valid in general and useful for a rapid choice of setting guaranteing selectivity. For speci?c combinations of circuit-breakers and for speci?c installation conditions, ABB SACE may provide indications which do not respect the rules given in this document, but however able to ensure sectivity.

The Is ultimate selectivity limit obtained is the one given in the “Coordination Tables” publication.

MCCB - Tmax T5 @ 400/415 V
Supply side

Versions Release Iu [A] Load side N, TM S, 630 H, L, EL 400 V 630 400 In [A] 320 400 500 320 400 630

(1) (2)

Available only with Iu ≤ 1250 A Value valid only for PR232/P, PR331/P and PR332/P trip units

T5

T6 T7 S,H,L,V(1) N,S,H,L TM, M EL EL 630 800 630 800 1000 800 1000 1250 1600 630 800 630 800 1000 800(2) 1000(2) 1250 1600 T T T T 30 30 30 30 30 T T T T 30 30 30 T T T T 30 30 T T T T 30 30 30 30 30 T T T T 30 30 30 30 30 T T T T 30

18 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Zone selectivity (T4L-T5L-T6L)

By means of the new PR223EF electronic release, it is possible to realise zone selectivity between moulded-case circuit-breakers of the Tmax T4L, T5L and T6L series. The PR223EF implements the new EF protection function, capable of detecting the short-circuit at its onset. This is thanks to “predicting” the fault, based on analysis of the trend of the current derivative in relation to the time, di(t)/dt vs i(t). If the EF protection is enabled, it intervenes for faults of considerable size, replacing the I protection function against instantaneous short-circuit when there is an auxiliary power supply. Between PR223EF releases, zone selectivity is implemented simultaneously on functions S, G and EF. It is carried out by means of an interlocking protocol (Interlocking, IL), guaranteed by a couple of shielded twisted pair cables for modbus RS485 which connect the circuit-breakers equipped with the PR223EF (ask ABB for further information about cable type). In the case of a short-circuit, the circuit-breaker immediately to the supply side sends a lock signal to the hierarchically higher level protection by means of the bus and, before trippping, checks that a similar lock signal has not come from the load-side protection. System integrity is controlled by a monitoring function: in the case of a short-circuit, if a fault is found in the interlocking system, the EF protection function trips (with trip times in the order of tens of ms), but zone selectivity is not guaranteed. Furthermore, if the load-side circuit-breaker does not manage to

trip, it asks the supply-side circuit-breaker for help and the latter opens even if it does not detect the fault (SOS function). A 24Vdc auxiliary power supply is required for operation of the EF protection and zone selectivity. The ultimate selectivity limit which can be obtained is 100kA Is=100kA All the protection functions can be programmed remotely, exploiting the dialogue function on the release, or locally by means of the PR010/T, which can be connected to a serial port on the front of the PR223EF. One of the main advantages in using zone selectivity between MCCBs is the reduction in size of the circuit-breakers it makes possible. In fact, in looking for selectivity between moulded-case circuitbreakers with the classic techniques, it is often necessary to increase the size of the supply-side circuit-breakers to obtain selectivity limits congruous with the short-circuit current of the installation. By means of suitably cabled PR223EF releases, it is possible to obtain 100kA of selectivity even between two circuit-breakers of the same size. An example is given below (see pages 22 and 23) of how, by means of zone selectivity between moulded-case circuit-breakers, a reduction in sizes and a considerable reduction in the peak current and speci?c energy let through by the circuit-breakers is possible, whilst still maintaining total selectivity.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Interlock con?guration

Each release is characterised by: - an input destined for connection with the release on the supply side “Uplink” - an output destined for connection with the release on the load side “Downlink” Each of the two can be con?gured in two ways: PP (point-point) or MP (multi-point) according to the installation condition the releases are in. The main con?gurations are given below: PR223EF

Uplink: PP/MP

Downlink: PP/MP

PR223EF PP

PR223EF

MP

PR223EF

MP

PP

MP

MP

MP

MP

MP

MP

PR223EF PP

PR223EF

PR223EF

PR223EF

PR223EF

PR223EF

PR223EF

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

19

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity
The main parameters, characteristic of the release, are:

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Trip delayed

EF enable/disable

100 kA 16 1200 meters

Enabling this parameter introduces a trip delay in the case when, on the load side of a release, smaller sized Tmax or modular circuit-breakers are installed. The aim of this parameter is to obtain selectivity with the other devices on the load side not equipped with PR223EF. This parameter is only enabled in the circuit-breakers which have the device outside the zone selectivity chain on the load side. Enabling/disabling protection EF. If protection EF is enabled: the presence of Vaux leads to automatic exclusion of function I and enabling of protection EF, the lack of Vaux leads to exclusion of protection EF and to the return of function I (if enabled). Ultimate selectivity limit which can be obtained with the PR223EF suitably cabled and supplied with power. Maximum number of releases which can be connected to the BUS of a level. Maximum overall length of the connection cable. Cabling the different releases is carried out as in the classic “Bus topology” (see ?gure).

PR223EF

Down

PR223EF UP

PR223EF UP

PR223EF UP

Cable RS485

= max 1200 m

20 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Indications about the settings

To obtain total selectivity, both in the case of overload and short-circuit, using the PR223EF releases suitably cabled and supplied with power, making the following selections and the following settings between the various circuit-breakers is recommended: Overload - Check there is no trip overlapping of protection functions L (against overload), taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Short-circuit - No trip overlapping of the I2 current thresholds of function S, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. - Trip time t2 Adjusted so as to realise time selectivity with any load-side circuit-breaker placed outside the zone selectivity chain. Between the circuit-breakers equipped with PR223EF and interlocked with each other, if A is the supply-side circuit-breaker and B the load-side circuit-breaker, the following must be valid: t2A ≥ t2B. When possible, it is advisable to look for time type selectivity as well between the interlocked circuit-breakers so as to guarantee partial selectivity in case the auxiliary power supply is lost. - Instantaneous protection function I This protection function is automatically disabled when function EF is enabled and there is an auxiliary power supply. Its settings are therefore only of importance in the case of losing Vaux.
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Zone selectivity between Tmax C B A

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

A PR223EF - Trip delayed By enabling this parameter on the releases which have a circuitbreaker directly on the load side not equipped with PR223EF, selectivity is obtained with the Tmax of a smaller size or the MCBs placed on the load side.

B PR223EF Trip delayed ON

C PR221DS

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

21

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity
Example of application
In the following example a comparison between an installation where selectivity is implemented with traditional techniques and the same installation with selectivity ensured by EFDP system is given.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Traditional installation

U

V = 400 V Ik = 95 kA

QF1 E3H800 PR122/P-LSI In800 WC1 6x(1x400)+2x(1x240)+1G400 Ib = 740 A Iz = 1050 A L = 17m PVC QF1 E3S/ S1000

Switchboard A
IkA=74 kA

QF2 T6L630 PR222DS-LSI In630

QF3 T4L250 PR222DS-LSI In250

WC2 6x(1x300)+2x(1x150)+1G300 Ib = 540 A Iz = 682 A L = 25 m PVC QS2 T6D630

WC3 3x(1x150)+1x(1x95)+1G95 Ib = 200 A Iz = 275 A L = 10m PVC

Switchboard B
IkA=54.5 kA QF6 T4H250 PR222DS-LSI In250

L

L1 In = 200 A

QF4 T4H250 PR222DS-LSI In250

QF5 T4H250 PR222DS-LSI In250

WC4 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 200 A Iz = 207 A L = 40m PVC

WC5 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 170 A Iz = 207 A L = 60m PVC

WC6 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 170 A Iz = 207 A L = 30m PVC

L

L2 In = 200 A

L

L3 In = 170 A

L

L4 In = 170 A

The choice of the protection devices shall be carried out above all making reference to the rated currents of the loads and to the shortcircuit current of the busbars. Besides, this choice is in?uenced by the search for selectivity realized through traditional techniques, whose values can be found in the “Coordination Tables” publication. The short-circuit current at the busbars of switchboard B (IkB=54.5kA) in?uences the choice of the protection devices and imposes the use T4H 250 circuit-breakers on the outgoing feeders. In order to guarantee selectivity, the circuit-breaker (QF2) on the supply side of switchboard B and installed in switchboard A must be T6L 630 type. The busbar of switchboard A is characterized by a short-circuit current value IkA=74kA: this affects deeply the choice of the upstream protection device which, independent of the rated current, shall be an Emax circuit-breaker and precisely an Emax E3H, therefore able to guarantee selectivity towards the apparatus on the load side. Each switchboard has got as main device a switch-disconnector, which shall be protected against short-circuit and overload by the circuit-breaker on the supply side. Generally speaking, in order to guarantee protection, it is necessary to use a switch-disconnector in the version derived from the circuit-breaker on the supply side. Therefore it is evident that the selectivity requirements condition deeply the choice of the protection devices and direct it towards differentiated sizes according to the location of the circuit-breakers in the installation.

22 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Installation with PR223EF Installation with PR223EF

U

V = 400 V Ik = 95 kA

QF1 T6L800 PR223EF In800 WC1 6x(1x400)+2x(1x240)+1G400 Ib = 740 A Iz = 1050 A L = 17m PVC QF1 T6D800

Switchboard A
IkA=74 kA

QF2 T5L630 PR223EF In630

QF3 T4L250 PR223EF In250

WC2 6x(1x300)+2x(1x150)+1G300 Ib = 540 A Iz = 682 A L = 25 m PVC QS2 T5D630

WC3 3x(1x150)+1x(1x95)+1G95 Ib = 200 A Iz = 275 A L = 10m PVC

Switchboard B
IkA=54.5 kA QF6 T4L250 PR223EF In250

L

L1 In = 200 A

QF4 T4L250 PR223EF In250

QF5 T4L250 PR223EF In250

WC4 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 200 A Iz = 207 A L = 40m PVC

WC5 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 170 A Iz = 207 A L = 60m PVC

WC6 3x(1x95)+1x(1x50)+1G50 Ib = 170 A Iz = 207 A L = 30m PVC

L

L2 In = 200 A

L

L3 In = 170 A

L

L4 In = 170 A

Since the rated current and the short-circuit values of the network under consideration remain unchanged, the use of the new protection release PR223EF allows selectivity to be obtained without increasing the size of the apparatus to be used. In particular, a T5L630 equipped with PR223EF can be used as circuit-breaker on the supply side of switchboard B (QF2). As a consequence, the switch-disconnector on the incoming feeder of switchboard B can be reduced in size. The most evident reduction in size which can be obtained regards the main device of the installation: thanks to the use of PR223EF release, a moulded-case circuit-breaker can be chosen instead of an air circuit-breaker. In this speci?c case, a T6L800 circuit-breaker with a downstream switch-disconnector of the same size can be used.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

23

Technical Application Papers

MCCB-MCCB Selectivity
The following table summarizes the advantages deriving from the use of the new electronic release. In details, it has been possible: ? to replace a large-sized moulded-case circuit-breaker with a smaller one – T5L 630 PR223EF instead of T6L630 PR221-LS; ? to replace a large-sized air circuit-breaker with a much smaller moulded-case one – T6L 800 PR223EF instead of E3H800 PR122/PLSIG; ? to replace a large-sized switch-disconnector with a smaller-sized one – T5D 630 instead of T6D630; ? to replace an air switch-disconnector with a switch-disconnector derived from a much smaller-sized moulded-case circuit-breaker – T6D 800 instead of E3S/MS1000.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Traditional solution

Solution with EFDP T6L800 PR223EF T6D800 T5L630 PR223EF T5D630

QF1 QS1 QF2 QS2

E3H800 PR122/P E3S/MS1000 T6L630 PR221DS T6D630

Besides a remarkable reduction in the applicable sizes, with the consequent advantages from a dimensional and economical point of view, the installation equipped with PR223EF releases is subject to more limited electrodynamical and thermal stresses than those of the traditional solution. Hereunder the let-through energy and peak curves relevant to the considered circuit-breakers are shown.

Let-through energy curve
I2 [MA2s] 103 MA2s E3H 800 Ip [kA]

103 kA

Peak curve

E3H 800 102 MA2s 102 kA T6L 800 T6H 630 T6L 800 T6H 630 T5L 630

10 MA2s

T5L 630 1 MA2s 10 kA 102 kA 103 kA Irms [kA] 10 kA 10 kA 102 kA 103 kA Irms [kA]

From the curves above, it should be noticed that at a short-circuit current value corresponding to 55kA, the speci?c let-through energy allowed by T6H630 is equal to 13 MA2s, whereas that of T5L630 is 3.5 MA2s. Also the peak values decrease drastically from 54kA of T6H to about 35kA of T5L630. Similarly, at 74kA short-circuit current, the speci?c let-through energy and the peak current limited by T6L800 circuit-breaker reduce very much the thermal and dynamical stresses if compared with E3H circuit-breaker. In particular, in this case, it is possible to use the current limiting capacities of the moulded-case circuit-breaker to optimize the dimensioning of the busbar system of switchboard A. In fact, with an air circuit-breaker on the supply side, it is necessary to adopt a busbar system dimensioned for a rated short-time withstand current (Icw) equal to 75kA and consequently with a current carrying capacity much more higher than the total current required by the installation. On the contrary, by using a T6L800 circuit-breaker on the supply side of the switchboard, it is possible to adopt a busbar system with Icw equal to 35kA, which results more consistent from a dimensional point of view with 800A current, which is the current carrying capacity required to this busbar system. In details, the following values correspond to 35kA rated short-time withstand current of the busbar system: - peak current Ip = (35x2.1) = 73.5kA, which results to be higher than the peak of 66kA allowed by T6L800 circuit-breaker at 75kA shortcircuit current; - let-through energy I2t = 352 x 1 =1225 MA2s, which results to be higher than the let-through energy equal to 20MA2s of T6L800 circuitbreaker with a short-circuit value corresponding to 75kA.

Traditional solution Busbars of switchboard A Icw = 75kA

Solution with EFDP Icw = 35kA

24 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

ACB-MCCB Selectivity
The case where selectivity is looked for between an air circuit-breaker on the supply side and a moulded-case circuit-breaker on the load side is now analysed. In this case, two paths can be followed: - traditional solution with time/energy selectivity; - zone selectivity, when the load-side circuit-breaker is a Tmax equipped with a PR223EF release and the Emax on the supply side is equipped with a PR122/P or PR123/P release.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

In this case, ABB SACE makes a table available in which the selectivity values between air circuit-breakers on the supply side and moulded-case circuit-breakers on the load side are given. The need to set the releases appropriately to obtain the selectivity value given in the table is obvious. The following must be true: In the overload zone, the load-side circuit-breaker must trip more rapidly than the supply-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. In the short-circuit zone - instantaneous protection function I must be set to OFF I3=OFF - the I2A trip threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the trip threshold of the protection against short-circuit (I3 or I2) of the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the effective currents circulating in the circuitbreakers - with regard to the t2 trip time of function S, the settings of the Emax on the supply side are indicated hereunder, according to the setting/type of MCCB on the load side: when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is higher than an instantaneous protection of the load-side circuit-breaker (magnetic, I3=ON or self-protection) the following is valid: t2A ≥ 100ms both if I2t =cost as well as if t =cost
104s 103s

Traditional solution

Emax-MCCB selectivity

B
102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

A

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

when the I2A threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker is only higher than the I2B threshold of the load-side circuit-breaker, by using curves with the same characteristics, the following is valid: t2A - tolerance ≥ t2B + tolerance + 50ms This relationship must be respected when, through the dialogue or the PR010T unit, electronic settings are used. In the more frequent case - use of the available settings through dip-switches - the values given in the following tables must be complied with: t2 times set ACB on the supply side t2A=200 t2A=200 t2A =400 t2A =700 MCCB on the load side t2B=50 t2B=100 t2B =250 t2A =500
Note The indications about the adjustments of the releases are valid in general and useful for a rapid choice of settings guaranteeing selectivity. For speci?c combinations of circuit-breakers and for speci?c installation conditions, ABB SACE may provide indications which do not respect the rules given in this document, but however able to ensure selectivity.

The Is ultimate selectivity limit obtained is the one given in the “Coordination Tables” publication.

ACB - MCCB @ 400/415 V
Supply side Version Release Load side Iu [A] B EL 800 800 1000 1000 1250 1250 1600 1600 E1 N B N E2 S L* 1250 1600 N S EL 1600 1000 800 2000 1250 1000 1600 1250 2000 1600 2000 E3 H EL 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 T T T T T T V 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 T T T T T T L* 2000 2500 S 4000

2500 1000 3200 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 T T T T T T T T T T T T

T1

T2

B C N N S H

TM

160

TM,EL

160

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T 55

T T T T T 65

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

T T T T T T

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

25

Technical Application Papers

ACB-MCCB Selectivity
Zone selectivity between Emax and Tmax

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

By means of the IM210 interlocking module, it is possible to extend zone selectivity from the PR223EF releases to the PR122/P or PR123/P release on the supply side. In practice, the device makes interfacing between the IL protocol of PR223EF and ZS zone selectivity of the PR122/P and PR123/P devices possible. Furthermore, by making this selectivity chain between Emax and Tmax, the limit selectivity value shall be the lesser value between: - the short-time withstand current of the supply-side circuit-breaker (Icw of the Emax) - the breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker on the load side (Icu of the Tmax in version L → 100kA) Management of two supply-side circuit-breakers To manage several Emax circuit-breakers on the supply side of PR223EF releases, one operates as follows: - Two supply-side circuit-breakers without bus tie In this installation con?guration, in the case of overcurrent the releases on the load side must lock both the supply-side circuitbreakers. Use of a single IM210 module is necessary for correct management of the monitoring signal and duplication of the locked signal coming from the circuit-breakers placed on the load side. - Two supply-side circuit-breakers with bus tie In this con?guration, the presence of the bus tie allows the installation to be divided into two perfectly isolated parts. When the bus tie is closed, in the case of overcurrent the releases on the load side lock both the supply-side circuit-breakers. When the bus tie is open, each release has a single circuit-breaker on the supply side. In this case, the load-side circuit-breaker which detects the fault must only lock opening of the circuit-breaker which detects it on the supply side. In this case, it is necessary to use two interconnected IM210 modules, which will receive the open/closed signal from the bus tie. If the bus tie is open: - the two lines will remain isolated; each IM210 will make the two releases in series communicate with each other. If, on the other hand, the bus tie is closed: - the signal will be transmitted by means of the Sysbus from one device to the other, and the locked signal will always be sent to both the devices on the supply side.

PR122

PR122

IM210 PR223EF PR223EF

Bus tie

PR122

PR122

IM210 IM210 PR223EF Bus tie status: Open/Closed PR223EF

26 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Indications about the settings

As will be illustrated better in the chapter dedicated to zone selectivity between Emax, if zone selectivity on function S is enabled on a PR122 or PR123 release, two situations can occur: - the Emax release receives a “lock” signal: if its I2 threshold has been exceeded, it trips within the t2 time set on the release; - the Emax release does not receive a “lock” signal: if its I2 threshold has been exceeded, it trips within a “selectivity time” time set on the release.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

This being stated, to obtain total selectivity, both in the case of overload and short-circuit, making the selections and settings described below is recommended, where: A is the Emax with PR122/P on the supply side of the PR223EF B is the Tmax with PR223EF C is a device outside the zone selectivity chain A and B are interconnected by means of the IM210 module

PR122P

A

PR223EF

B

IM210

PR221DS

C

Zone selectivity between Emax and Tmax Overload - Check that there is no trip overlapping of protection functions L (against overload), taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Short-circuit - No trip overlapping of the I2 current thresholds of function S, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. - Trip times t2A and “selectivity time” of the Emax on the supply side adjusted in the following way: selectivity time adjusted so as to realise time-current selectivity with the C device on the load side placed outside the zone selectivity chain
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

C

B

A

t2A

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

selectivity time

t2A (time of function S) adjusted so as to guarantee no tripping of circuit-breaker A which receives the lock signal, i.e. according to the relationship: t2A > t2B+70ms*
*Δt minumum between the trip times of two CBs in series, with auxiliary power supply, and with constant time curves, to guarantee no trip of the CB on the supply side.

Instantaneous protection function against short-circuit I set to OFF: I3 = OFF

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

27

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
The case where selectivity is looked for between two air circuit-breakers is now analysed. In this case various methods can be used to obtain selectivity between the circuit-breakers: time selectivity zone selectivity directional time selectivity directional zone selectivity for combinations of Emax with any type of release for combinations of Emax with PR122 and PR123 releases for combinations of Emax with PR123 releases for combinations of Emax with PR123 releases.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Time selectivity

To obtain the maximum level of selectivity compatible with the chosen strategy, both in the case of overload and short-circuit, the following selections and the following settings between the various circuit-breakers are recommended: Overload - Check that there is no trip overlapping of protection functions L (against overload), taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Short-circuit - The instantaneous protection function I of the supply-side circuitbreaker must be set to OFF I3A=OFF - the I2A trip threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker must be adjusted so as not to create trip overlapping with the trip threshold of the protection against short-circuit (I3 or I2) of the load-side circuit-breaker, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers - with regard to the t2 trip times of function S, no overlapping of the curves and the following relationships must be respected: Minimum difference between the t2 times of two Emax circuit-breakers equipped with PR121, PR122, and PR123 t=const t2A > t2B + 100ms* *70ms if in aux supply or in self-supply under steady conditions I2t=const t2A > t2B + 100ms t2A < 400ms I2t=const t2A > t2B + 200ms t2A ≥ 400ms
Note The indications about the adjustments of the releases are valid in general and useful for a rapid choice of settings guaranteeing selectivity. For speci?c combinations of circuit-breakers and for speci?c installation conditions, ABB SACE may provide indications which do not respect the rules given in this document, but however able to ensure selectivity. 104s 103s 102s 10s

1s 10-1s 10-2s

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

100kA

With regard to the ultimate selectivity limit - If instantaneous function I is set to ON (I3=ON), the ultimate selectivity limit will be the value of the I3 instantaneous trip threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker less its tolerance: Is = I3minA - If instantaneous function I is set to OFF (I3=OFF), the ultimate selectivity limit is equal to the Icw value of the supply-side circuitbreaker: Is = Icw.

28 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Zone selectivity between Emax

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

By means of zone selectivity, it is possible to obtain selectivity between Emax circuit-breakers, notably reducing the trip times by obtaining lower curves which can facilitate the search for selectivity towards the medium voltage circuit-breakers. By reducing the trip times, the thermal stresses on all the components of the installation during the fault are also reduced. Zone selectivity between Emax circuit-breakers, applicable to protection functions S and G, can be enabled in the case where: - the ?xed time curve is selected for these protections; - there is a 24V auxiliary power supply source; - the Emax circuit-breakers are equipped with PR122 or PR123 releases. The ultimate selectivity limit obtained is equal to the Icw of the supply-side circuit-breaker if the I3 is set to OFF The operating principle of zone selectivity between Emax is described below. By zone the part of the installation included between two circuit-breakers in series is intended. The fault zone is the one immediately to the load side of the circuit-breaker which detects the fault. By means of a simple connection wire, each circuit-breaker which detects a fault communicates this to the one on the supply side. The circuit-breaker which does not receive any communication from those on the load side will launch the opening command in the selectivity time set, adjustable from 40 to 200ms. The aim of the selectivity time is to realise time selectivity towards pieces of apparatus connected on the load side which are outside the zone selectivity chain (apparatus not cabled). On the other hand, the circuit-breakers which receive a lock signal from another release, will trip according to the t2 time set of protection S.

A t2A B selectivity time

A selectivity time B closed

A

A

B
Lock signal Fault current

B
Lock signal Fault current

As can be seen, if the settings indicated below have been respected, in the case of a short-circuit no circuit-breaker trips in the t2 time, but all of them trip within the selectivity time set.

A
PR122/P

t2A PR122/P

t2A PR122/P

selectivity timeA

B
PR122/P

t2B PR122/P PR122/P

selectivity timeB PR122/P PR122/P

does not trip PR122/P

C

selectivity timeC PR122/P Fault current Connection with lock signal Connection without lock signal PR122/P

does not trip PR122/P

does not trip

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

29

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
Indications about the settings
To obtain total selectivity, both in the case of overload, short-circuit and earth fault, using the “zone selectivity” function, making the following selections and the following settings between the various circuit-breakers is recommended:
104s 103s 102s

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Zone selectivity between Emax

Overload - Check that there is no trip overlapping of protection functions L (against overload), taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. Short-circuit - No trip overlapping of the I2 current thresholds of function S, taking into consideration the tolerances and the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers. - Trip times t2 and “selectivity time” adjusted in the following way: selectivity time adjusted so as to realise time-current selectivity with any device connected directly on the load side placed outside the zone selectivity chain t2 (time of function S) adjusted so as to guarantee no trip of the protection which receives the lock signal, i.e. according to the relationship: t2A > selectivity timeB +70ms*
*Δt minumum between the trip times of two CBs in series, with auxiliary power supply, and with constant time curves, to guarantee no trip of the CB on the supply side.

10s

t2A
1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1kA

time of selectivityA
1kA 10kA 100kA

A

B

With regard to the ultimate selectivity limit - If the instantaneous function I is set to ON (I3=ON), the ultimate selectivity limit will be the value of the I3 instantaneous trip threshold of the supply-side circuit-breaker less its tolerance, if this function is enabled: Is = I3minA - If the instantaneous function I is set to OFF (I3=OFF), the ultimate selectivity limit is equal to the Icw value of the supply-side circuitbreaker: Is = Icw.

30 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Indications about cabling

To carry out the cabling, a two-wire shielded corded cable can be used (Vn≥50V; AWG 22; nominal conductor DC resistance@20°C ≤15 Ohm/1000ft; nominal outer shield DC resistance@20°C ≤3 Ohm/1000 ft). The shield must only be connected to earth on the release of the supply-side circuit-breaker. The maximum cabling length for zone selectivity between two units is 300 metres. This limit can be increased with special mechanisms. The maximum number of circuit-breakers which can be connected to the outputs (Z out) of a release is 20. The lock signal of the release is a +24V signal. Repetition of the signal As shown in the table, in the case where one release receives the lock signal on the load side, even if it has not entered the threshold of function S, it will repeat the lock signal on the supply side. This to avoid any setting errors, i.e. a release on the load side not having entered the threshold, but a release on the supply side having entered the threshold, leading to lack of selectivity: Zone Selectivity Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Inserted Inserted Inserted Inserted I > I2 NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES ZSI signal 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 ZSO signal 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 T trip time no trip no trip t2 programmed t2 programmed no trip no trip selectivity time t2 programmed

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

ZSA MODULE In the case where several load-side circuit-breakers have to lock several supply-side circuit-breakers, but in a different way, it is necessary to use the ZSA module supplied by ABB. With reference to the ?gures at the side, let us suppose, for example, that: C must lock A and B D must only lock B. With the cabling made as in the ?gure at the side, it would not be possible to obtain the desired solution. In fact, the lock signal coming from D would also be transmitted to A by means of the electrical continuity which is created between the different B-C and C-A interlocking connections.

A

B

C

D

By means of suitable cabling of the ZSA module, the lock signal is made one-way so that a signal coming from D towards B is not transmitted to A as well. The ?gure at the side shows use of the ZSA module.

A

B

ZSA

C

D

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

31

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
Directional time selectivity

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

By means of the directional protection D present on the Emax circuit-breakers equipped with PR123 releases, it is possible to realise time selectivity of directional type. This type of selectivity has all the advantages and limits of time selectivity realised by means of function S, but is also able to trip within different times according to the direction of the fault. Using this type of selectivity is particularly recommended in all those cases where there is more than one power supply source. In fact, in the case of a fault near a source, service continuity of the remaining power supply can be guaranteed by means of directional protection. Directional protection Directional protection is based on the possibility of correlating the circuit-breaker behaviour with the direction of the fault current which passes through it in relation to the reference direction which can be set on the release. According to the direction of the current, it is possible to set two different trip times on the PR123 release: a time (t7Fw) in a direction concordant (Fw) with the reference direction set; a time (t7Bw) in a direction discordant (Bw) with the reference direction set. These times are enabled when the only current threshold (I7) set on the PR123 release is exceeded. If the fault current is discordant (Bw) with the reference direction set, the protection will trip once the I7 threshold in the t7Bw time set is reached (unless functions S and I are not set to intervene before D). If the fault current is concordant (Fw) with reference direction set, the protection will trip once the I7 threshold in the t7Fw time set is reached (unless functions S and I are not set to intervene before D). Furthermore, if function I is enabled and the short-circuit current exceeds the I3 value set, the circuit-breaker will open instantaneously regardless of the direction of the current. The default reference direction is from the top of the circuit-breaker (zone where the release is) to the bottom (top to bottom). The ?gure at the side shows the actual con?guration which two circuit-breakers have in an installation. The default reference direction set on the circuit-breaker is indicated by the red arrow. If the circuit-breaker power supply direction is from top to bottom (power supply from G2), the reference direction remains the ABB default one. If the circuit-breaker power supply direction is from bottom to top (power supply from G1), by working on its software, the new PR123 electronic release allows the default setting to be reversed (bottom to top). Working in this way, all the values measured with the PR123 release will be assessed as they actually ?ow in the installation. Furthermore, on the single-line diagram which represents the installation, the reference direction to carry out a selectivity study and consider the Bw or Fw trip directions correctly always remains from top to bottom. In the single-line diagram at the side, the reference directions are indicated in red. If the circuit-breakers are considered to be supplied as described in the previous ?gure, there is the following: for QF2 it is the default direction, whereas for QF1 it is the direction reversed by means of the software.
G1 Release
Direction set by ABB Reference direction inverted through software

G2 Release
Reference direction set by ABB

G1

A
Reference direction

QF1

Contribution to the short-circuit by each generator: 10 kA Reference direction

G2

with PR123

B

QF2

with PR123

C D
QF3
with PR222

E QF4
M motor to the
Contribution of the short-circuit: 5kA

Other passive loads

To realise directional time selectivity, it is necessary to assume the signi?cant fault points and, having assessed the short-circuit currents in play, establish which circuit-breakers will have to trip. To be sure that everything functions as foreseen in the case of a fault, i.e. the circuit-breakers always trip with directional protection, the following settings and selections are recommended: - Select the circuit-breakers with a short-time withstand current value higher than the maximum prospective short-circuit current which can occur at the point where they are installed: Icw ≥ Ik MAX - Set the trip thresholds of directional protections D to a lower value than the minimum prospective short-circuit current which can occur at the point where that release is installed: I7 < Ik min - Set the trip thresholds of protections S and I in such a way so as not to create trip overlapping with function D. Also remember that, in the case of constant time curves, to guarantee tripping of an air circuit-breaker equipped with PR121/P, PR122/P or PR123/P and no trip of another air circuit-breaker equipped with these releases, a difference between the trip times set must be kept, equal to: Δt = 100ms (which can be reduced to 70ms if there is an auxiliary power supply or if it is considered that the fault occurs when the releases under self-supply are in a steady condition).

32 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Example of application

With reference to the installation in the ?gure, the different operating conditions of the circuit-breakers in relation to the different fault points are analysed. Fault on the supply side of QF1 Only QF1 must trip. QF1 detects a current of 15kA discordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7BW1 time QF2 detects a current of 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7FW2 time QF3 does not detect any fault current QF4 detects a current of 5kA discordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7BW4 time If: t7FW2 > t7BW1+100ms* t7BW4> t7BW1+100ms* therefore QF1 only will trip Fault on the supply side of QF2 Only QF2 must trip. QF1 detects a current 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7FW1 time QF2 detects a current 15kA discordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7BW2 time QF3 does not detect any fault current QF4 detects a current of 5kA discordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7BW4 time If: t7FW1> t7BW2 +100ms* t7BW4> t7BW2+100ms* therefore QF2 only will trip Fault on the load side of QF3 Only QF3 must trip. QF1 detects a current 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7FW1 time QF2 detects a current 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7FW2 time QF3 detects a fault current of 25kA QF4 detects a current 5kA discordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7BW4 time If: t7FW1 > t23+100ms* t7FW2 > t23+100ms* t7BW4 > t23+100ms* therefore QF3 only will trip Fault on the load side of QF4 Only QF4 must trip. QF1 detects a current 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, and will therefore trip in the t7FW1 time QF2 detects a current 10 kA concordant with its reference direction, will therefore trip in the t7FW2 time QF3 does not detect any fault current QF4 detects a current 20 kA concordant with its reference direction, will therefore trip in the t7FW4 time If: t7FW1 > t7FW4+100ms* t7FW2 > t7FW4+100ms* therefore QF4 only will trip
G1
Contribution to the short-circuit by each generator: 10 kA Reference direction

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

G2

A
Reference direction

QF1

with PR123

B

QF2

with PR123

C D
QF3
with PR222

QF4

E
M motor to the G2
Contribution of the short-circuit: 5kA

Other passive loads

G1

A QF1
Reference direction

Contribution to the short-circuit by each generator: 10 kA Reference direction

with PR123

B

QF2

with PR123

C D
QF3
with PR222

QF4

E
M motor to the
Contribution of the short-circuit: 5kA

Other passive loads

G1

A
Reference direction

QF1

Contribution to the short-circuit by each generator: 10 kA Reference direction

G2

with PR123

B

QF2

with PR123

C D
QF3
with PR222

QF4

E
M motor to the G2
Contribution of the short-circuit: 5kA

Other passive loads

G1

Reference direction

A QF1

Contribution to the short-circuit by each generator: 10 kA Reference direction

with PR123

B

QF2

with PR123

C D
QF3
with PR222

QF4

E
M motor to the
Contribution of the short-circuit: 5kA

* Minimum Δt between the trip times of two CBs in series, without an auxiliary power supply and not in steady conditions, to guarantee no trip of the CB on the supply side

Other passive loads

Summarising, the settings possible which respect the limits imposed are: Protection functions CB QF1 QF2 QF3 QF4 S I2 OFF OFF 3kA OFF 200ms t2 I7 3kA 3kA 3kA D t7FW 300ms 300ms 200ms t7BW 200ms 200ms 300ms I I3 OFF OFF OFF OFF

The ultimate selectivity limit which is obtained is equal to the Icw of the circuit-breakers if I3=OFF.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

33

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
This function allows selectivity to be obtained even in mesh networks and ring networks. In particular, in the presence of a bus tie, thanks to directional zone selectivity it is possible to keep a half-busbar supplied with voltage even in the case of a fault on the other half-busbar. For it to be possible to apply zone selectivity to function D (directional zone selectivity), a series of conditions must exist: - zone selectivity S and G must be disabled [OFF] - there is a 24Vdc auxiliary power supply source - the Emax circuit-breakers are equipped with the PR123 releases. Each release has 4 ports available: - two inputs (one in a concordant and one in a discordant direction), through which the release receives the lock signal coming from other releases - two outputs (one in a concordant and one in a discordant direction), through which the release sends the lock signal to other releases. The behaviour of the release is described below: The circuit-breakers which do not receive a lock signal (coordinated with the direction of the current) will launch their own opening command in a time equal to the ”selectivity time” which can be adjusted from 130 to 500ms. The circuit-breakers which receive the lock signal (coordinated with the direction of the current) will time according to the t7BW or t7FW times depending on the direction of the current. It is important to remember that if function I is enabled, and the short-circuit current exceeds the value set (I3), the circuit-breaker will open instantaneously and regardless of the directions and signals received. In the same way, if function S is enabled and the short-circuit current exceeds the value set (I2), the circuit-breaker will open in the t2 time, if this is shorter than the other times, regardless of the directions and signals received. By using directional zone selectivity, it is possible to obtain selectivity even in meshed networks up to an ultimate selectivity limit equal to the Icw of the circuit-breakers furthest on the supply side (if the I3=OFF). In the same way as for directional protection, to be sure that everything functions as foreseen in the case of a fault, i.e. the circuit-breakers always trip with directional protection, the following settings and selections are recommended: Select the circuit-breakers with a short-time withstand current value higher than the maximum prospective short-circuit current which can occur at the point where they are installed: Icw ≥ IkMAX - Set the trip thresholds of directional protections D to a lower value than the minimum prospective short-circuit current which can occur at the point where that release is installed: I7 < Ikmin - Set the trip thresholds of the protections S and I in such a way so as not to create trip overlapping with the function D. By means of these settings, it is certain that, for any foreseeable fault in the installation, the circuit-breakers will trip according to the settings of function D. The trip times must be adjusted remembering that: selectivity time is the trip time of the “unlocked” circuit-breakers which must open; t7FW/BW is the trip time of the “locked” circuit-breakers which must not open. Starting from these considerations: selectivity time must be adjusted so as to realise time-current selectivity with any device connected directly on the load side placed outside the zone selectivity chain t7FW/BW adjusted so as to guarantee no trip of the protection which receives the locked signal i.e. according to the relationship: t7 > selectivity time +70ms*

Directional zone selectivity

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

34 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

An application example of this selectivity technique is now illustrated. This example also shows which procedure must be used to determine the cabling required between the various releases.

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L
Reference direction

M

With reference to the installation indicated in the ?gure, once the maximum and minimum short-circuit currents in the different points of the installation are known, it is necessary to: - hypothesise the various signi?cant fault points; - for the ?rst fault: establish which circuit-breakers must isolate the fault; establish which circuit-breakers must be locked and by what; draw the appropriate cabling; - repeat the operation for the subsequent faults in order to determine all the necessary cabling. Finally, it is necessary to check that the cabling carried out does not create any con?icts. Application example The main faults which can be hypothesised are as follows: fault in B1 fault in B2 fault on the load side of QF4 fault on the load side of QF5 fault on the supply side of QF1 fault on the supply side of QF2
Note The QF4 circuit-breaker could be provided with PR122/P release since, with a passive load, the short-circuit current may have a single direction and consequently directional protection results to be unnecessary. The use of PR122/P release, with zone selectivity implemented on protection S, guarantees an input and an output, which allow to realise selectivity in the case of a fault on the load side of QF4.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

35

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
Fault in B1: Only the QF1 and QF3 circuit-breakers must interrupt the fault: in particular the QF3 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from busbar B2 (therefore in a direction concordant with the one set); the OUT Fw bus sends a lock signal to the IN Fw bus of the QF2 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from transformer TM2 and therefore in a direction concordant with the one set), and to the IN Bw bus of the QF5 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from the motor and therefore in a direction discordant with the one set).
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L

M

Fault in B2: The QF2 and QF3 and QF5 circuit-breakers must interrupt the fault: in particular the QF3 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from busbar B1 (therefore in a direction discordant with the one set); the OUT Bw bus sends a lock signal to the IN Fw bus of the QF1 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from transformer TM1 and therefore in a direction concordant with the one set).
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L
OUT QF3 BW FW BW

M

Cabling FW QF1 QF2 IN QF3 QF4 QF5 FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW

QF1 BW FW

QF2

QF4 FW BW FW

QF5 BW

36 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Fault on the load side of QF4: Only the QF4 circuit-breaker must interrupt the fault. The QF4 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from busbar B1 (therefore in a direction concordant with the one set); the OUT Fw bus sends a lock signal to the IN Fw bus of the QF1 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from transformer TM1 and therefore in a direction concordant with the one set), and to the IN Fw bus of the QF3 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from busbar B2 and therefore in a direction concordant with the one set).These two cabling operations must be carried out. The QF3 circuit-breaker will then lock the circuit-breakers which insist on busbar B2 by means of the cabling already carried out.
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L

M

Fault on the load side of QF5: In this case only the QF5 circuit-breaker must interrupt the fault. The QF5 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from the busbars B1 and B2, in a concordant direction in relation to the direction set, therefore the OUT Fw bus of QF5 locks both the IN Fw bus of QF2 (passed through by a current coming from TM2 and therefore in a direction concordant to the one set) and the IN Bw bus of QF3 (passed through by a current coming from TM1 and therefore in a direction discordant with the one set). These cabling operations must be carried out. In the same way as before, the QF3 circuit-breaker locks QF1 with the cabling already present.
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L
OUT QF3 BW FW BW

M

Cabling FW QF1 QF2 IN QF3 QF4 QF5 FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW

QF1 BW FW

QF2

QF4 FW BW FW

QF5 BW

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

37

Technical Application Papers

ACB-ACB Selectivity
Fault on the supply side of QF1: Only the QF1 circuit-breaker must interrupt the fault. The QF1 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from busbar B1 (therefore in a direction discordant with the one set); the OUT Bw bus sends a lock signal to the IN Fw bus of the QF3 circuit-breaker (passed through by a current coming from transformer TM2 and therefore in a direction concordant with the one set). This cabling must be carried out.The QF3 circuit-breaker will then lock the circuit-breakers which insist on busbar B2 by means of the cabling operations already carried out.
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L

M

Fault on the supply side of QF2: In this case only the QF2 circuit-breaker must interrupt the fault. The QF2 circuit-breaker is passed through by a current coming from busbar B2, in a direction discordant with the direction set, therefore the OUT Bw bus of QF2 locks both the IN Bw bus of QF5 (passed through by a current coming from the motor and therefore in a direction discordant to the one set) and the IN Bw bus of QF3 (passed through by a current coming from TM1 and therefore in a direction discordant with the one set). These cabling operations must be carried out. In the same way as before, the QF3 circuit-breaker locks QF1 with the cabling already present.
Direction (OUT-IN) Fw Fw Fw Bw Bw Fw Bw Bw Reference direction Arrow

-TM1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-TM2
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

QF1+ PR123

QF2+ PR123

IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B1
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

-B2 QF4+ PR123 QF3+ PR123 QF5+ PR123
IN Fw Bw OUT Fw Bw

L
Cabling FW QF1 QF2 IN QF3 QF4 QF5 FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW FW BW QF1 BW FW QF2 BW FW OUT QF3 BW

M

QF4 FW BW FW

QF5 BW

38 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Having established the cabling system as shown in the table, an example of settings for the installation in question is given:

How to obtain selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Protection function CB QF1 QF2 QF3 QF4 QF5 I2

S t2 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF I7 <Ikmin <Ikmin <Ikmin <Ikmin <Ikmin t7FW 350ms 350ms 300ms 250ms 250ms

D t7BW 250ms 250ms 300ms 350ms 350ms Selectivity time 150ms 150ms 150ms 150ms 150ms

I I3 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

Apart from realising directional zone selectivity with the settings indicated, selectivity between the QF4 and QF5 circuit-breakers towards the supply-side circuit-breakers and between QF1 and QF2 can also be achieved, in the case of loss of the auxiliary power supply. Indications about cabling A two-wire shielded corded cable (not supplied - ask ABB for information) can be used to carry out the cabling. The shield of the cable must only be connected to earth in correspondence with one of the two releases. When it is possible to ?nd a circuit-breaker further “to the supply side” between the two, it is advisable to connect the shield to earth in correspondence with the release which equips this circuit-breaker. The maximum length of the cabling between two units for zone selectivity is 300 metres. This limit can be increased using special mechanisms. The maximum number of circuit-breakers which can be connected to the outputs (Z out) of a release is 20. The lock signal of the release is a +24V signal. In the case of directional zone selectivity, the use of the ZSA module described on page 31 is recommended.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

39

Technical Application Papers

Appendix A
MV/LV Selectivity
General
Before facing the problem of the selectivity between the medium and low voltage circuit-breaker, it is ?rst necessary to clarify the functions of these circuit-breakers: ? the MV protection on the supply side of the transformer must: - protect the transformer against short-circuit - protect the transformer against faults on the supply side of the main LV circuit-breaker (if a dedicated protection is not provided) - not intervene when the transformer is supplied with voltage (inrush current – inrush) - be set so as to satisfy the limits imposed by the distributor utility - be set so as to be selective with the protections on the supply side (if requested) ? the LV protection on the load side of the transformer must: - protect the transformer against short-circuit and overload (*) - be set so as to be selective with the protections on the load side. To carry out the selectivity study between two medium and low voltage circuit-breakers, the data indicated below must ?rst be put into a logarithm diagram (referring to a single reference voltage): 1. transformer: ? connection curve (inrush); ? rated current; ? short-circuit current at the LV busbars; ? short-circuit withstand capacity of the transformer; 2. distributor utility: ? maximum current and time limits which can be set for the protections required; At this point, the trip curves of the main low voltage circuit-breaker must be traced so that: ? protection of the transformer against overload is veri?ed (threshold I1 of protection function L close to the rated current of the transformer); ? it is selective with the other low voltage circuitbreakers on the load side. Once the LV protection is de?ned, the curve of the medium voltage circuit-breaker voltage is traced so that: ? it protects the transformer against overloads (this protection is usually ensured by the low voltage circuit-breaker); ? it stays above the inrush current curves of the transformer; ? it stays below the representative point of the thermal withstand (this protection can be carried out by the low voltage circuit-breaker, but any short-circuit between the low voltage circuitbreaker and the terminals of the transformer remains unprotected); ? it stays below the limits set by the distributor utility.

Appendix A

(*) The use of a thermometric equipment allows to improve the protection of the transformer against overload.

Example

The selectivity study for the network represented in the ?gure is to be carried out: Data: ? Distributor utility: - rated voltage Un = 15 kV - three-phase short-circuit current Ik3 = 12.5 kA - single-phase earth fault current Ik1E = 50 A - overcurrent protection 51: ? ?rst threshold: I> ≤ 250 A, t ≤ 0.5 s ? second threshold: I>> ≤ 900 A, t ≤ 0.12 s ? 15/0.4 kV Transformer: - rated power Sn = 1600 kVA - short-circuit voltage uk = 8 % - rated primary current It1 = 61.6 A - rated secondary current It2 = 2309.4 A - inrush current Ii1 = 9?It1 = 554.4 A - inrush time constant tthe = 0.4 s
-t I = it . e t 2 - inrush current trend
i

U Vref = 15000 V

QF1

Vn1 = 15000 V Vn2 = 400V Sn = 1600 kVA Vk = 8%

QF2 E3H 2500 PR121/P-LSI In2500

- short-circuit current Ik3LV2 = 28.9 kA(1) - short-circuit current at the transformer busbars referred to the primary Ik3LV1 = 770 A(1) - thermal withstand: 770 A for 2 s ? Low voltage circuit-breakers (2): - QF2 E3H 2500 PR121/P-LSI In 2500A - QF3 T4H 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In 320A - QF4 T2S 160 TMD In 125A
(1) assuming the medium voltage network impedance to be nil (2) assuming for all protections the respect of the limits imposed by loads and cables

QF3 T4H 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In320

QF4 T2S 160 TMD In125

40 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

As described previously, the data regarding the transformer at the 15 kV reference voltage are traced ?rst of all:

104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

Time-Current Curve

Appendix A

Thermal withstand Inrush

Ik LV busbars 0.1kA 1kA 10kA

Now the data regarding the limits set by the distributor utility are put in:

104s 103s 102s 10s 1s

Time-Current Curve

Distributor utility limits 10-1s 10-2s

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

Apart from protecting the transformer, the curve of the main low voltage circuit-breaker must also guarantee selectivity with the low voltage circuit-breakers. The curves of the low voltage circuitbreakers can therefore be traced so as to de?ne a minimum limit for the curve of the main circuit-breaker:

Time-Current Curve
104s 103s 102s QF3 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

QF4

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

To ensure selectivity between QF3 and QF4, function L and S of T4 must be set as follows: QF3 T4H 320 PR222DS/P-LSI R320 L: Setting: 0.9x320 = 288 A S: t=const Setting: 5.8x320 = 1856 A I: OFF

Curve: 3s Curve: 0.1s

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

41

Technical Application Papers

At this point it is possible to trace the trip curves of the main QF2 LV circuit-breaker bearing in mind the following:

Appendix A

? function L: - threshold I1 to be adjusted to a value as close as possible to the rated current of the transformer for its protection against overload. Since the rated current of the transformer is 2309.4 A and taking into account the uncertainty of the circuit-breaker trip for currents between 1.05 and 1.2 (in compliance with IEC60947), the current I1 set can be 2309.4/(1.2x2500)@0.77xIn (1925)(1) - time t1 so as to be suf?ciently above the curve of QF3 ? function S: - threshold I2 to be adjusted to a value higher than 1856 A +10% i.e. 2042.2 A - time t2 , setting I2 over the self-protection value of the QF3circuit-breaker, it is possible to adjust it to 0.1s ? function I: - threshold I3 to be adjusted to a value higher than the short-circuit current there is in correspondence with QF3. In the case under examination, this current is the current at the transformer busbars (it is presumed that QF2 and QF3 are in the same switchgear and that there is a negligible impedance).

104s 103s 102s QF3 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

Time-Current Curve

QF2

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

(1) less restrictive settings can be used when the overloading capacity of the machine is known.

The setting of QF2 are summarised below: QF2 E3H 2500 PR122/P-LSI In=2500A L: S: t=const I: Setting: Setting: Setting: 0.77x2500 = 1925 A 1.7x2500 = 4250 A 14x2500 = 35000 A Curve: 3s Curve: 0.10s

Now the settings for the medium voltage release are de?ned, taking into account the following: ? ?rst threshold: - higher current (30÷35%higher than the current on the load-side, according to the Publication CEI 1135 of the Italian Electrotechnical Committee) than the I2 of the main 125 A low voltage circuit-breaker (I2 + 10% tolerance, given at 15000 V); - delay time so as to be selective but lower than the short-circuit withstand of the transformer and less than the 0.5 s limit imposed by the distributor utility; ? second threshold: - current higher than the fault current on the LV side (increased by 1.2÷1.6 if possible) and less than the 900 A limit imposed by the distributor utility; - instantaneous trip time. Time-Current Curve

104s 103s 102s QF3 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

QF1

QF2

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

The setting of QF1 are summarised below: First threshold I> 200 A, 0.35 s Second threshold I>> 820 A, inst.

42 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Appendix B
General considerations about residual current selectivity
With its many functions and types, the residual current circuit-breaker can be de?ned as follows: a device sensitive to the earth currents, able to open an electric circuit within a certain time when the earth current exceeds the preset value. It is used to protect people and things against: direct contacts (a device with high sensitivity, it is an additional protection) - indirect contacts or loss of insulation. The professional rule for the electrical installation always imposes, except for special plants, the presence of an earthing system, both in civil and industrial buildings. Furthermore, the IEC 60364 Standard makes the use of a residual current circuit-breaker compulsory in many cases for protection of people, giving prescriptions referring to the trip time and currents in relation to the installation voltage, to the distribution system present, and to the places of installation. Good protection of the installation should provide: - a main residual current type of circuit-breaker so as to have protection against faults which could occur between the main circuit-breaker and the distribution; - protection of each individual shunt with a residual current device. In this way, there is the need to study selections of the devices carefully to guarantee selectivity, and prevent an earth fault in any point of the distribution circuit from putting the whole installation out of service. In general, two residual current devices are selective for each current value if their trip zones do not overlap. This condition is obtained by respecting the following points: - The residual current trip threshold of the device on the supply side must be higher than or at maximum equal to double the residual current trip threshold of the device on the load side: IΔnSupply side≥2xIΔnLoad side. This relationship is necessary for taking into account the concept of rated no trip residual current, which is the maximum current value for which the residual current circuit-breaker de?nitely does not trip. The Standards indicate a current value of IΔn/2 and within this value the device does not have de?nite behaviour, i.e. it may trip just as it may not trip. - The minimum no trip time of the circuit-breaker on the supply side, for each current value, must be higher than the maximum trip time of the circuit-breaker on the load side: Tminsupply>Ttotload For residual current circuit-breakers conforming to the IEC60947-2 Standard (CEI EN 60947-2), the prescriptions regarding the trip curves for residual current without delay or for the delayed type are given in Annex B of the Standard. The differentiation of the trip time can be made more easily by using delayed type residual current (Δt = time limit of no trip in ms or if Δt=60ms) with de?nite time or with inverse time, where tripping can be delayed according to a selectable time. These pieces of apparatus are generally installed on the supply side of other general type residual current devices and it is advisable to have a relationship of 3 between the trip thresholds. Function G Protection against earth faults can be realised, using function G present on the electronic releases installed on board the moulded-case or air circuit-breakers. The trip characteristics can be adjusted for the current (from 0.2 to 1 x In) and for the time, with an inverse or de?nite time trend, depending on the different versions. Realising protection against indirect contacts with this type of function requires a careful analysis of the distribution system and of the value of the earth fault current. For Emax circuit-breakers it is possible to realise zone selectivity for function “G” according to the same philosophy described for function “S”. This makes it possible to reduce the trip times between two residual current protections in series, increasing the safety margin for any fault on the load side of the supplyside circuit-breaker, since its trip time is not as high as it should have been to obtain selectivity towards the load side with the classic method for time selectivity.

Appendix B
43

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Technical Application Papers

Example

Appendix B

An example is given of a network where residual current selectivity on 3 levels is to be realised. Considering the residual current releases available RC221 (Tmax T1-T2-T3) Adjustable trip thresholds IΔn [A] Trip times [s] RC222 (Tmax T1-T2-T3-T4-T5) Adjustable trip thresholds IΔn [A] Trip times [s] RCQ Adjustable trip thresholds IΔn [A] Trip times [s]

0.03 – 0.1 – 0.3 – 0.5 – 1 - 3 instantaneous

0.03 – 0.05 – 0.1 – 0.3 – 0.5 – 1 – 3 – 5 - 10 instantaneous - 0.1 – 0.2 – 0.3 – 0.5 – 1 – 2 - 3

0.03 – 0.05 – 0.1 – 0.3 – 0.5 – 1 – 3 – 5 – 10 - 30 instantaneous - 0.1 – 0.2 – 0.3 – 0.5 - 0.7 - 1 – 2 – 3 - 5

To obtain selectivity the following device can be used: RCD 1 type RC221 installed, for example, on a Tmax T1 RCD 2 type RC222 installed, for example, on a Tmax T5 RCD 3 type RCQ installed, for example, on an Emax E3 characterised by the curves shown in the enclosed time-current diagram. It can be seen how overlapping of the curves of the 3 devices used is avoided, thereby obtaining selectivity for earth fault.
102s 10s RCD3 Delayed type ?t=Is [300mA] 1s

Time-Current Curve
RCD 1 RCD 2 RCD 3

10-1s RCD2 Delayed type 300ms [100mA] 10-2s Delayed type ?t=60ms [100mA] RCD1 Not delayed type [30mA] 10-3 A 10-2 A 10-1 A 1A

10-3s

44 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Appendix C
Example of LV/LV selectivity study

Appendix C

The selectivity study for the installation shown in the ?gure supplied by a transformer with a 400V secondary winding is to be carried out:
QF1 E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250 Ik = 20kA

QF2 T4N 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In320

Ik = 10.5kA

QF3 T2N 160 TMD In160

Ik = 1.2kA

Four levels are present: ? QF1 E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In 1250A (Ib = Intrafo = 577 A, Iz = 700 A) ? QF2 T4N 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In 320A (Ib = 285 A, Iz = 300 A) ? QF3 T2N 160 TMD160-1600 (Ib = 120 A, Iz = 170 A) ? QF4 S200L C16 (Ib = 14 A, Iz = 25 A)

QF4 S 200L C 16

L

In the study below, it is assumed that the circuit-breakers are passed through by the same fault current (the real currents passing through the circuit-breakers are ignored) and it is assumed that the circuit-breakers selected are able to protect the cables, the switch-disconnectors and whatever else. Time-Current Curve First of all, the curves of the QF4 circuit-breaker are traced: 104s
103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s
S 200L C 16 1.2 kA

0.1 kA

1 kA

10 kA

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

45

Technical Application Papers

Noting that the maximum short-circuit current at the point where QF4 is installed is 1.2 kA, to obtain total selectivity it is suf?cient for the magnetic threshold of the QF3 supply-side circuit-breaker to be higher than this value, taking into account the tolerances:
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s
1.2 kA S200L C16 T2N 160

Appendix C

Time-Current Curve

In any case, a total energy selectivity value, i.e. equal to the breaking capacity of S200L (6 kA) is found in the coordination tables. The settings of QF2 will be: QF2, T2N 160 TMD In160 L: I:
10 kA

Settings: 136 [A] Settings: 1600 [A]

0.1 kA

1 kA

Now the curve of the QF2 T4N 320 circuit-breaker is drawn:
104s
T2N 160

Time-Current Curve
T4N 320

103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s
S200L C16

The settings of QF2, in accordance with what has been said in the previous chapters, will be: QF2, T4N 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In320 L: Settings: 0.9 Curve: 12s S: t=const I: OFF Settings: 8.8 Curve: 0.1s

In this way, in accordance with the coordination tables, the selectivity value will be 25 kA which, in this speci?c case, means total.
0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA

Finally, the curve of the QF1 E1B 1250 circuit-breaker is drawn: Time-Current Curve
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s
T2N 160 E1 B1250 S200L C16 T4N320

The settings of QF1, in accordance with what has been said in the previous chapters, will be: QF1, E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250 L: Settings: 0.47 Curve: 48s S: t=const Settings: 3.5 Curve: 0.2s I: OFF With these settings, total selectivity, i.e. up to the breaking capacity of T4N equal to 36 kA, is obtained from the coordination tables.

0.1 kA

1 kA

10 kA

46 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

When the real currents circulating in the circuit-breakers are to be taken into account, it must be remembered that an overload current of a load-side circuit-breaker is detected on the supply side ampli?ed by the currents of the other shunts. For this purpose, the installation just seen above will be considered, assuming that there are two other 100 A loads:

Appendix C

QF1 E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250 Ik = 20kA

285 A QF2 T4N 320 PR222DS/P-LSI In320

100 A

100 A

The most critical condition is analysed, taking into consideration the trip times with the lowest tolerance for the supply-side circuit-breaker and the highest tolerance for the load side one: an overload of 416 A is presumed in QF2. The current which passes through QF1 will be 616 A: Time-Current Curve
104s
T4N 320

103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s

372 s 315 s

E1B 1250

416 A

616 A

Under these conditions, the QF1 E1B 1250 supply-side circuitbreaker trips in a time of 315 s whereas the QF2 T4N 320 load-side one trips in a slightly longer time of 372 s. For this current value, selectivity in the overload zone is not guaranteed.
10 kA

0.1 kA

1 kA

Of course the supply-side circuit-breaker does not trip under 416 A, whereas for suf?ciently higher values than 416 A (e.g. 700 A) the supply-side circuit-breaker trip time is greater than that of the load side one, since the sum of the currents of the other loads ‘weighs’ less on the total current which passes through them. Finally, assessment of the currents which effectively pass through the circuit-breakers could make selectivity critical for certain overload current values and in these cases the solution may be to use a higher function L curve.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

47

Technical Application Papers

Appendix D
Further considerations about the real currents which circulate in the circuitbreakers
As mentioned on page 5 of this publication regarding the real currents which circulate in the circuit-breakers, three cases can be noted: - a single circuit-breaker on the supply side of a single circuit-breaker on the load side (passed through by the same current) - a single circuit-breaker on the supply side of several circuit-breakers on the load side (supply-side circuitbreaker passed through by a current higher than that of the load-side circuit-breaker) - two or more circuit-breakers on the supply side and several circuit-breakers on the load side. By means of some examples, it is shown how incorrect determination of the real currents which circulate in the circuit-breakers can lead to lack of selectivity in the overload zone or oversizing of the circuit-breakers to obtain selectivity in the short-circuit zone.

Appendix D

A supply-side circuit-breaker of a load-side circuit-breaker

In this case the two circuit-breakers are passed through by the same current both under normal conditions and in the case of overcurrent. To verify the time-current selectivity in the overload and short-circuit zone, it is therefore suf?cient to check that the trip curves of the two devices have no intersections.
Vref = 400 LLLN/TN-S 104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s T4N 250 PR221 In250 10-2s

T4N250 PR221 In250 - T4N250 PR221 In250

U

T4N 250 PR221 In250

L

-Ls 0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA

48 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

A supply-side circuit-breaker of several load-side circuit-breakers

Appendix D

This installation is certainly the one met with most commonly in practice. Having more than one circuit-breaker on the load side, there will be different current values between the supply-side circuit-breaker and the load-side circuit-breaker towards which selectivity is looked for. Therefore the trip time of the load-side circuit-breaker due to an overcurrent must be compared with the trip time of the supply-side circuit-breaker in correspondence with the sum of all the currents which pass through it. Example In the installation in the ?gure, under normal conditions the supply-side circuit-breaker is passed through by a current of 360A whereas any outgoing feeder is passed through by 90 A. Possible settings of the circuit-breaker based on the currents which pass through the circuit-breakers are: CB A: I1 = 0.92 x 400 = 368A (t1=3s) CB B: I1 = 0.90 x 100 = 90A The curves of the circuit-breakers with the settings indicated above are shown in the ?gure. From an initial analysis, time-current selectivity would appear to be ensured between the two circuit-breakers. T4S400 PR221 400 - T2S160 TMD U
Vref = 400 LLLN/TN-S A V = 400 V I”k LLL = 50 kA
B1 T2S 160 TMD100-1000 B2 T2S 160 TMD100-1000

104s

103s T5S 400 PR221DS-LSI R400 Ib = 360.0 A 102s 10s
B3 T2S 160 TMD100-1000 B3 T2S 160 TMD100-1000

1s 10-1s

Ib = 90.0 A Iz = 134.0 A

Ib = 90.0 A Iz = 134.0 A

Ib = 90.0 A Iz = 134.0 A

Ib = 90.0 A Iz = 134.0 A

10-2s

L1 In = 90.0 A

L2 In = 90.0 A

L3 In = 90.0 A

L4 In = 90.0 A
104s

0.1 kA

1 kA

10 kA

T4S400 PR221 400 - T2S160 TMD

Let us now suppose that there are overload conditions with load L1 which absorbs a current of 200A. Circuit-breaker B1 will therefore be passed through by 200A, whereas circuit-breaker A will be passed through by 470A (200+ 90+ 90+90). With the settings hypothesised above, there are the conditions shown in the ?gure, where both the circuit-breakers trip in a time of about 50s. Therefore, with the settings hypothesised, in the case of overload there will not be selectivity between the pair of circuit-breakers considered.

103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA

By modifying the settings of the supply-side circuit-breaker, for example by raising the trip time of protection L against overload: CB A: I1 = 0.92 x 400 = 368A (t1=12s) Selectivity can be obtained in the overload zone since: load-side circuit-breaker B trips in about 50s supply-side circuit-breaker A trips in about 200s.

104s 103s 102s 10s 1s

T4S400 PR221 400 - T2S160 TMD

In most cases, even not carrying out this analysis, the size and distribution of the overload between the circuit-breakers allows a difference in the trip times able to realise time-current selectivity.

10-1s 10-2s 0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

49

Technical Application Papers

Several circuit-breakers on the supply-side of several load-side circuit-breakers

Appendix D

To carry out a simpli?ed analysis, it must be assumed that the circuit is perfectly symmetrical and therefore that the total current recalled by the loads is divided into equal parts in the three supply-side circuit-breakers. Example Under normal conditions, in the installation in the ?gure, the supply-side circuit-breakers are passed through by a current of 1000A, whereas the two outgoing feeders are passed through by 1000A and the other by 2000 A. In the analysis given here, selectivity between a supply-side circuit-breaker A and the largest outgoing feeder B1 is veri?ed. Possible settings of the circuit-breakers based on the currents which pass through the apparatus are: CB A: I1 = 0.925 x 1250 = 1156A (t1=12s) I2 = 8 x 1250 = 10000A (t2=0.4s) I3=OFF CB B1: I1 = 0.80 x 2500 = 2000A (t1=3s) I2 = 3 x 2500 = 7500A (t1=0.2s) I3=OFF

U Vref = 20000 V
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1 kA

E1B 1250 PR121/P - E3N 2500 PR121/P
TM3 Vn2 = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA CB A E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250

TM1 Vn2 = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA CB A E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250 CB B1 E3N 2500 PR121/P-LSI In2500

TM2 Vn2 = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA CB A E1B 1250 PR121/P-LSI In1250

B1 A

CB B2 T7H 1250 PR232/P-LSI In1250 L1 Sn = 692.82 kVA Cosphi = 0.90 In = 1000 A

Ik = 55 kA

L

L1 Sn = 1385.64 kVA Cosphi = 0.90 In = 2000 A

L

1 kA

10 kA

100 kA

The curves of the two circuit-breakers being examined with the settings indicated above are shown in the ?gure. At ?rst glance there would not seem to be time-current selectivity between the two pieces of apparatus. Since these are circuit-breakers equipped with electronic releases, the trip times of the two devices at the signi?cant currents are veri?ed.

1.05xI1 of the supply-side circuit-breaker IA= 1156 x1.05=1214 A tA = 700 s which corresponds to a current on B1 of: IB= (1214x3) - (1000) =2642 A tB = 450 s E1B 1250 PR121/P - E3N 2500 PR121/P
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA 100 kA

1.2xI3 of the load-side circuit-breaker IB= 7500x1.1 = 8250 A tA = 45 s which corresponds to a current on A of: IA= (8250+1000)/3= 3083 A tB =174 s E1B 1250 PR121/P - E3N 2500 PR121/P
104s 103s 102s 10s 1s 10-1s 10-2s 0.1 kA 1 kA 10 kA 100 kA

50 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

As can be seen, even if the curves overlap, there is time-current selectivity in the overload zone.

Appendix D

Selection of the Icw must also take into account the real currents circulating in the circuit-breaker. The A circuit-breakers are passed through by a maximum of: 36kA due to a fault between the circuit-breaker and the transformer 18kA due to a fault on the busbar. These circuit-breakers must therefore be selected with: Icu > 36kA as the breaking capacity must be higher than the maximum short-circuit current Icw > 18kA as time selectivity is only looked for towards the load-side apparatus. For possible selectivity towards other load-side apparatus, circuit-breaker B1 must have: Icw > 55kA.

Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

51

Technical Application Papers

Glossary
Is ultimate selectivity limit

Glossary

Icu ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity of a circuit-breaker Icw rated short-time withstand current Category A type of circuit-breaker without Icw (indicated for the energy selectivity) Category B type of circuit-breaker with Icw (indicated for the time selectivity) In rated current of a release (this identi?es the rated current of the circuit-breaker equipped by the release in question)

Iu rated uninterrupted current of a circuit-breaker (this identi?es the “size” of the circuit-breaker) I3Max / I3min = maximum/minimum threshold of the protection against instantaneous short-circuit Example: -for a modular curve C (Im=5..10In) -for a moulded-case TMD circuit-breaker (Im=10In±20%*) -for function I of an electronic release (I3=10In±10%*) Icc short-circuit current TMD thermomagnetic release with adjustable thermal and ?xed magnetic threshold TMA thermomagnetic release with adjustable thermal and magnetic threshold EL electronic release Function L protection against overload Function S protection against delayed short-circuit Funzione I protection against earth fault Function G protection against directional short-circuit Function D protezione contro il cortocircuito direzionale I1 trip threshold of function L t1 trip time of function L I2 trip threshold of function S t2 trip time of function S I3 trip threshold of function I I4 trip time of the function G t4 tempo di intervento della funzione G I7 trip threshold of the function D t7 trip time of function D selectivity time trip time of the electronic release when zone selectivity is enabled and the input locking signal is not present. Self-protection protection of the moulded-case circuit-breaker equipped with electronic release allowing rapid times of fault extinction for currents higher than 10 to 12 times the Iu, even when the instantaneous protection is set to OFF. ft (foot) measure of length expressed in feet
* ±.....% = tolerance of the protection

→ I3Max=10In, I3min=5In → I3Max=12In, I3min=8In → I3Max=11In, I3min=9In

52 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers

Due to possible developments of standards as well as of materials, the characteristics and dimensions speci?ed in this document may only be considered binding after con?rmation by ABB SACE.

ABB SACE S.p.A.
An ABB Group Company

L.V. Breakers Via Baioni, 35 24123 Bergamo - Italy Tel.: +39 035.395.111 - Telefax: +39 035.395.306-433
http://www.abb.com

1SDC007100G0203 May ’07 Printed in Italy 5.000 - CAL


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