高中英语· 选修10· 译林版
Period Two Word Power & Grammar and Usage
Ⅰ.Words： penfriend n．笔友 1．__________ request vt. & n．要求，请求 2．_______ Ⅱ.Phrases： so...as to 如此……以便于…… 1．_________ at all times 无论何时，一直 2．___________ be guilty of 犯……罪 3．___________
一、正式英语与非正式英语 英语有不同的类型，应用不同类型的英语要求取决于不 同的情形。最重要的区别是英语的书面语和口语之分，而书 面语和口语中又有正式语和非正式语之分。
书面语中的论文、报告、申请信等。口语中的演讲、与 陌生人谈话等。 2．非正式语一般用于下列情况： 书面语中包括写给家人及朋友的信件、电子邮件、短信
句等。正式语中还多用抽象名词。如： So clever was he a student that he was able to work out
all the difficult problems.
他如此聪明以至于能解答所有困难的题目。 What should be done today has been done. 今天该做的都做完了。 4．非正式英语中主要用简单句、主动结构、通俗语以及
He doesn't like the first.He likes the third.
他不喜欢第一个，喜欢第三个。 Have an aim in life，or your energies will all be wasted.
二、正式语和非正式语的表达形式 1．状语 (1)时间，原因和条件状语可以用非谓语动词的形式，也可 以用状语从句的形式，一般地说，非谓语动词形式比状语 从句形式正式。
Being ______(As he was)a farmer，he had to get up early.
Weather permitting __________________(If weather permits)，we shall go.
般说，介词短语比副词正式。 in a confident way/with confidence. He spoke ________________________________(confidently)
(3)英语中用一些副词有两种形式，一种是－ly形式，一种是 同形容词的形式相同，一般说，前者比后者正式。 loudly He read ______(loud) ．
rightly (right)． I guessed _______
(4)让步状语从句“how(who，when，what)ever”的形式比“no matter how(who，when，what)”的形式正式。 Whoever _________(No matter who)he is，I won't see him.
Whom _______(Who)are you waiting for? whom (who)I met the other day. He is the person ______
who (that)is well－known here. He is the person ____ This is the book ______ which (that)I bought yesterday. (3)指时间和地点的从句“prep＋which”比“when” and in which (where)I “where”从句正式。This is the place ________ worked.
I He is taller than __(me) ． I Who is there？It is __(me) ．
my Do you mind ___(me)smoking?
Everyone should do ___(their)duty. his
me Give ___(us)a kiss，darling. he knows (they know)the answer. Everyone thinks _________
(4)指作者本人用“we”比“I”正式。 As ___(I)showed it is not an easy question. we (5)泛指人时，“one”比“you”正式。
One _____(You)never knows what may happen.
(6)在复合句中，主句和从句中的主语出现名词和代词时，主 句中用名词比用人称代词正式。 The plane took off as soon as it had refuelled. ____________________________________________ (It took off as soon as the plane had refuelled.)
Ⅲ.指示代词 (1)当“this”和“that”都是后指时，“that”比“this”正式。 That (This)is what I thought. _____
(2)“that/those”作为先行词比名词正式。 those which (the flowers)we Those flowers are better than ___________
planted last year.
(1)单数比复数正式。 has None/Neither of them ____(have)arrived yet. (2)复数比单数正式。 were (was)you I would do that. If I _____
have (has)arrived. Neither his wife nor his child _____ are (is)hundreds of people outside. There ____
This kind of dog (These kinds of dogs are)is easy to train. ________________
I like most kind of cat(cats)． 4．倒装句比不倒装句正式。 Had I known it (If I had known it)I would have told you. _______________
________________________ Hardly have I seen this. (I have hardly seen this.)
5．不省略的形式比省略的形式正式。 that is a famous writer. I know ____he whom I have known for several years. He is a person _______ I spent all the week ___ in writing my paper. 6．介词前提比介词结尾的句子正式。 on whom we can rely He is a person _____________________(whom we can rely
___________________________ With what did he write it？ (What did he write it with？)
May _____(Can)I use your bike? (2)用于请求时，“would”和“could”比“will”和“can”正式。 Would/Could(Will/Can)you like to give a speech? 8.泛指时定冠词比名词复数正式。 The horse is a very useful animal． _________________________________ (Horses are very useful animals.)
that we should do it (for us to do it)． It is important ____________________ It seems that he is a teacher. (He seems to be a teacher.) ____________________________
10．其他的一些句子(下划线是正式的形式)。 If you come early，you will see him. (Come early (1) __________________________________ and you will see him.) I shall try and do it. (I shall try to do it.) (2) ____________________ He is so young that he can not dress himself. (3) ___________________________________________ (He is too young to dress himself.)
It is so beautiful a city．(It is such a beautiful city.) (4) ______________________ Haven‘t you heard the news？ (Have you not heard the (5) ____________________________
To my surprise ，I hear the news.(I'm surprised to hear (6) ______________
We start for Beijing tonight. (7)____________________________(We are starting for
(8) _____________ To begin with ，(First)we must consider this thoroughly.
(9)I go to see my old friend ___________ occasionally (now and then)． hence (therefore)unable to help you. (10)I am ______
By the way ，(Incidentally)do you know something (11) ____________
about this? therefore (so)I could not come. (12)I was ill ________ (13)He spoke loudly _____________ in order that (so that)every one could hear him. even though (even if)you have (14)You should work hard ____________
made great progress.
(15)They asked me ________ whether (if)they would come.
[即时跟踪] 请说出下列哪些短语或语句属于正式英语，哪些属于非正式 英语 A．I am sorry to inform you that... B．passive verb forms C．I am very grateful for... D．Why don't we...?
E．I will not be able to attend the...
F．idioms and slang... G．contracted verb forms like we've，I'm，etc. H．I look forward to hearing from you…
I．short sentences J．Dear Tom... K．Dear Ms Smith... L．Best wishes，... M．I'm really sorry I．.. N．Unfortunately，we will have to postpone... O．Our computers are used for a variety...
2．Informal English：_________________________________ 答案 1.A，B，C，E，H，K，N，O 2．D，F，G，I，J，L，M