新课标高中英语必修1 Discovering useful structures_图文

Unit 1

Discovering useful structures

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (I)
statements and questions

直接引用别人的原话,两边用引号“”标 出,叫做直接引语;用自己的语言转述别 人的话,不需要引号这叫做间接引语。

直接引语为陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑 问句和祈使句时,转换为间接引语时, 在句 子的结构、人称、时态、时间状语和地点 状语等方面都有变化。

1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句

2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 1) He said , “I’m going to Beijing.” → He said that he was going to Beijing.
2) He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a doctor. 3) She asked, “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.

陈述句
用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句 的谓语动词可直接用引语中的said, 也可用told 来代替。注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,但不可直接说told that 。 He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.” He said (to us) that he had been to the Great Wall. He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday.” He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.

转换步骤:
“I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends.
Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like computers. Sarah said she didn’t

Sarah said to her friends that she didn’t like computers.

一般疑问句 ?间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中 谓语动词said要改为asked (me/him/us等),语 序是陈述句的语序。 He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” He asked (me) whether / if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” He asked whether I was interested in English.

转换步骤:
“Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil?”

They asked him.
It is easy to improve the condition of the soil. They asked him

if

it is easy to improve the condition of the soil. is was

asked

They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil.

特殊疑问句
? 原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句 的谓语动词用ask (sb. )来表达,语序改为陈 述句语序 He said to me, “What's your name?” He asked me what my name was. He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

转换步骤:
When do you harvest the wheat ?
( They asked him )

you harvest the wheat
They asked him When you harvest the wheat. he

harvested They asked him when he harvested the wheat.

选择疑问句 ? 用whether…or…表达,而不用if…or…,也 不用either…or… He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” He asked me whether I spoke English or French. I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?” I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.

在直接引语变为间接引语时需要 注意的变化
1. 注意时态的变化 2. 注意人称变化 3. 注意指示代词的变化 4. 注意时间的变化 5. 注意地点的变化

6. 注意个别趋向动词的变化

直接引语时态
一般现在时
现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 过去完成时 一般将来时

间接引语时态
一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 不变 过去将来时

人称的变化 一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新

口诀
一 随 主 二 随 宾 第三 人称 不变

说明

直接引语

间接引语

引号内的第一人称 She said,“ I like She said that she 变间引后与主句主 liked tennis. tennis.” 语的人称保持一致 引号内的第二人称 He said to Lily, He told Lily that 变间引后与主句宾 “ You must get she must get up early. 语的人称保持一致 up early.” 引号内的第三人 称在变间引后人 称不变 She said to me , She told me that “ They want to they wanted help help him.” him.

谓语动词时态变化需要注意几点:
1. 直接引语表述的是客观真理,变为间接引 语时,时态不变 The geography teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” The geography teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

2. 如果直接引语所表述的内容在目前和说话 时同样有效,变间接引语时,时态可不变

The children said, “We love this game.” They told us that they love that game.
3.主句谓语动词的时态是现在时态,在引述时, 时态不变。 She says, “I’ll never forget the days in the country.” She says that she’ll never forget the days in the country.

从句时态无须改变的还有以下情况:
1. 当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候; 2. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语 时; 3. 当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句, 表示过去的时间时; 4. 当引语是谚语、格言时; 5. 当直接引语中有情态动词 should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need时。

直接引语

间接引语
that, those then, that day

指示代词

this, now,

these today

时 间 状 语

this week yesterday
last week four days ago the day before yesterday tomorrow next month here come, bring

that week the day before
the week before four days before two days before

地点状语 方向性动词

the next day the next month there
go, take

直接引语中的助动词 间接引语中的助动词 shall should

should will
would may might can could must

should(不变) would
would(不变) might might(不变) could could(不变) must / had to

Practice (I)
1. “I never eat meat,” he said. he never ______ ate meat. He said that ______ 2. “I’ve found my wallet,” he said to me. told me that he ______ had ______ found ______ his He ______ wallet. 3. “I took it home with me,” she said. she ______ had taken it home She said that ______ _______ with her.

4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun ______ rises in the east goes down in the west. and ______ 5. “I met her yesterday,” he said to me. He ______ told me that he ______ had met her the day before ______. 6. “You must come here before five,” he said. He said that I ______ had to go ______ there before five.

7. “I bought the house 10 years ago,” he said. had bought the house 10 He said that he _______ years _______. before 8. “Did you see her last week?” he said. asked ______ if I had seen her the week He ______ _______. before 9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” could sit there. told Jim that he ______ He ______

10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” how ______ she ______ had He asked his mother ______ found it. 11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked. He asked me _______ _______ _______been I had _______ days. where 12. those “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. He asked ______ ______ knew where she whether I ______. lived

Practice (II)
1. “I don’t want to go sightseeing,” said John. → John said that he ____________ didn’t want to go sightseeing. 2. The mother said, “I’m cooking.” →The mother said that she ______________. was cooking 3. Daisy said, “I have bought a new computer.” →Daisy said that ______________ a new computer. she had bought

4. They said, “We stayed in America.” →They said that __________________ they (had) stayed in America. 5. He said, “I had left for Beijing before you called me.” →He said that _________ he had left for Beijing before _________. I called him 6. Tom said, “I will explain it to you after class.” →Tom said that he ____________________ after class. would explain it to me 7. She said, “I will buy this book today.” →She said she _______________________. would buy that book that day

8. The old man said, "I am surprised with the changes that have taken place here.“ he was surprised with →The old man said ________ had taken place there the change that___________________. 9. The stranger said to me, “A play is being performed now.” play was being →The stranger told me that a ______________ performed then ______________. 10. The volunteer said, “I will attend the performance tomorrow.” he / she would attend →The volunteer said ____________________ the performance the next day ___________________________.

Practice (III)
1. He said , “I m afraid I can’t finish this work.” He said that he was afraid he couldn’t finish that work. 2.He said , “I haven’t heard from him since May.” He said that he hadn’t heard from him since May. 3.Tom said “I will see you next week.” Tom said that he would see me the next week.

4. “Why were you late again?” The teacher said to me. The teacher asked me why I was late again.

5. “I don’t like swimming,” said Sarah.
Sarah said she didn’t like swimming.

6. “Have you been to Paris?” My classmate asked me.
My classmate asked me if / whether I had been to Paris.

1. Review grammar and finish the exercises on P 5 and P 42.

2. Preview Using language on P 6 and 7.


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