中考英语语法讲解资料及练习（ 中考英语语法讲解资料及练习（共 18 讲）
第 1 讲：名词
名词当然是大家都很熟悉的了，我们吃的 food，喝的 drinks，穿的 clothes 都是名词。It is easy, right? 但 是你可能被名词的单复数变化、名词作定语以及名词所有格等问题搞得糊里糊涂的，到底该怎么用呢？ OK,follow me。 First, 名词复数的特殊变化。 普通名词的复数我们知道是直接加-s 或 -es，可是偏偏有一些名词不听话，变化不规则。这些小调皮是： a. class, box, watch, brush 等词以 s, x, ch, sh, 结尾，复数要加-es； b. story, factory 等以"辅音字母+y"结尾的词复数要先将-y 变成-i 再加-es； c. knife, wife, life 等以-f 或-fe 结尾的词一般先将-f 或-fe 变为-v, 再加-es； d. 以-o 结尾的名词，一般来说，末尾是"元音字母+o" 的词加-s，我们学过的有 radio,zoo。末尾是"辅音 字母+o"的词，变复数加-es。如：tomato, hero, potato，当然其中的 piano 和 photo，又是一个例外，他们的结 尾只能加-s。 e. child（children）, foot（feet）, tooth（teeth）, mouse（mice）, man（men ）, woman（women ）等词 的复数变化全不遵循规则。 注意：与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词，其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。如：an Englishman，two Englishmen. 但 German 不是合成词，故复数形式为 Germans； f. deer，sheep 等词更是懒得可以，竟然单复数同形。好记好记。 people，police，cattle 等词，以单数形式出 现， 但实为复数， 所以它们的谓语当然也是复数形式， 这就是集体名词。 English， French， the the the Chinese 等名词表示国民总称时，也作复数用。 注意：maths，politics，physics 等学科名词,虽然以-s 结尾， 仍为不可数名词。 还有 theUnited States(美国） ， the United Nations（联合国）等应视为单数。 别奇怪，名词有时也可以作定语的。它作定语时一般用单数，但也有以下例外。 a. man, woman 等作定语时，它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定。如：men workers， women teachers。 b. 数词+名词作定语时，这个名词一般保留单数形式,中间加连字符。如：a ten-mile walk 十里路， two-hundred trees 两百棵树。 哇！这些问题好复杂，我好想轻松一下。那我们就轻轻松松地面对名词所有格问题。 这里面内容可谓少之又少，可也不能小视呦。 名词所有格： 表示“……的”通常是在名词的后面加-s，如：Children's day，father's shoes。但以-s 结尾的名词因为已 经有 s 了，只需加 ' 就 OK 了。如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，.则表示“分别有” 。.如：John's and Mary's room（约翰和玛丽各有一间，共两间） ；两个名词并列，只有一个's，则表示"共有"。如：John and Mary's room （约翰和玛丽共有一间） 。 还有些无生命名词的所属要用介词 of 来帮助一下，如：a map of China，the end of this term。 好，名词部分我们已经学完，It's a piece of cake? 接下来到了我们趁热打铁的时间了， Are you ready? 练习： 1. All the _____teachers and______students are having a meeting there. A. women …girls B. women… girl C. woman…girls D. woman…girl 2. Mr Black is a friend of _________.
A. Jack's aunt's B. Jack's aunt C. Jack aunt's D. aunt's of Jack 3. This toy was made by a ____ boy. A. ten-year-old B. ten-years-old C. ten-year-older D.ten-years-older 4. The farmer raised ten _________. A. sheeps B. deers C. horse D. cows 5. She looked at us sadly with her eyes as large as_________. A. her grandmother B. her grandmother's C. her grandmothers' D. that of her grandmother 6. We have moved into a ________. A. two- storey house B. house of two storey C. two-storeys house D. two storeys house 7. The ______ was too much for the child to carry. A. box's steel B. box of a steel C. steel box D. box of the steel 8. We'll give our English teacher a card for _________. A. the Teacher's Day B. Teacher's Day C. a Teacher's Day D. Teachers' Day 9. Li Ping met an old friend of _______on a train yesterday. A. he B. him C. his D. her 10. _________are big and bright. A. The classroom window B. The window of the classroom C. The windows of the classroom D. The classroom's windows 实战：
1. Don't worry. Your son will come back in ______hour. A. a B. an C. the D. / 2. This nice blouse isn't mine. It's ______. A. you B. your C. Lucy D. yours 3. What's " potato" in Chinese? －It's _____ . A. 香蕉 B. 大白菜 C. 西红柿 D. 土豆 4. The ninth month of a year is _______. A. December B. November C. September D. October 5. A: Must I leave now? B: No, you _______. A. needn't B. mustnt C. don't D. won't 6. We have a history lesson ______Wednesday afternoon. A. on B. of C. at D. to 7. Suan has made quite ______friends since she came to China. A. few B. a few C. little D. a little 8. A: Have you ever ______to the West Lake? B: Yes, I ______there last winter. A. gone, went B. been, went C. gone , have been D. been, have 9. Do you ________English? A. tell B. say C. talk
D. speak 10. A: May I _______your ruler? B: OK, I'm glad to _______it to you. A. lend, borrow B. lend, lend C. borrow , lend D. borrow, borrow 11. We'll go to the museum if it _______tomorrow. A. can't rain B. won't rain C. don't rain D. doesn't rian 12. Do you know ________? A. where does he study B. he studies where C. where he studies D. he where studies 13. A: _______do you go to see your grandparents? B: Once a month A. How often B. How long C. how much D. how many 14. A: Would you like another cup of orange? B: ______I'm full. A. No, thanks B. Yes, please. C. Here it is. D. I don't like. 15. You must be tired. Why not ________a rest? A. to stop to have B. stop having C. stop to have D. to stop having
第 2 讲：代词
我们刚刚讲完了名词，现在再来看看名词的 brother—代词。它与名词的作用其实很相似，所担当的句中 成分也相差不多。 但也别小看代词呀！它还有很多的“小个性”呢！只要抓住它的几个“小脾气”，那么你就可 以牢牢地掌握它了。 代词中第一个“小个性”就是物主代词。像 my 和 mine 这两个小冤家总是让人分不清谁是谁。但你只要记 住它们最重要的区别—my 的后面一定要接名词，不可以单独出现，只能做定语，如：my father；而 mine 则 是名词性，只能单独出现，在句中做主语和表语。如：Mine is green. It's mine. 记住这两个句子，凡是名词性 物主代词（yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs）就都可以放在 mine 的位置上了。这样，通过它们出现的位置不同， 我们就可以把它们区别开了。
代词的第二个“罗嗦”就是它有一个小跟班－self(selves)—反身代词，也就是表示“自己、亲自”的意思。关 于反身代词， 需要注意的是她不能单独做主语， 但可以放在人称代词后面， 做同位语。 如： Marry herself said so. 玛丽她自己这么说的。 （不能说 Herself said so.）下面我给你开点小灶，单独讲一讲须“特特”注意的地 方。 Of+名词性物主代词：of +物主代词构成双重所有格。公式为：a（an, this, that ）+名词+of +名词性物主 代词。牢记公式，举一反三。因为物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, no, each,every, such, another 等词一起前置， 修饰一个名词， 而必须用双重所有格。 如： a friend of mine 我的一个朋友） each brother （ ， of his（他的每一个兄弟）. some, any 的用法：我们都知道 some 用于肯定句中，而 any 则用于否定句和疑问句中。 所以 somebody， someone 也用于肯定句中，而 anybody、anyone 则用于否定和疑问句中。 注意：在 Would youlike some coffee?（要来点咖啡吗？）这样的肯定疑问句中，说话人认为对方的答案 会是肯定的，或期望得到肯定回答时，用 some 而不用 any。 every 和 each 的用法：every 强调全体的概念，指三个以上的人或物(含三个)，不可单独使用；each 强 调个体概念。指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)，可单独使用.。Every student in our school works hard.（我们学校 的学生都很用功。 Each student may have one book.. （每个学生都可有一本书。 ） ） both, either, neither 的用法： both 意为“两者全都”，与复数连用。either 意为“两者中间的任何一个”，neither 表示“两者之间一个也不 是”， 与单数连用。 Both of the them come from London。 如： 他们两人都是伦敦人。 You may take either with you。 两个中间你随便带哪个都行。 Neither is correct。 两个都不对。 Few，a few 和 little，a little 的用法： Few，a few 用来代替和修饰可数名词，little，a little 用来代替和修饰不可数名词;a few 和 a little 着重肯 定意思，相当于汉语“有几个”，“有一点儿”；few 和 little 着重否定意思，相当于汉语 “没有几个”，“没有多 少” OK，代词部分我们已经学完，It's a piece of cake? 接下来到了我们趁热打铁的时间了， Are you ready? 练习： 1. We had plenty of paper but______ink. A. a few B. few C. not many D. not much 2. Learning a foreign language is especially difficult for those who have have never learned ______before. A. one B. it C. them D. that 3. We're very busy because we've so ______books to read and so _______homework to do every day. A. much ... many B. many ... much C. many ... a lot D. a lot ... much 4. I thought ______of the matter but still couldn't find out the reason. A. every B. both C. nothing
D. everything 5. My car is not so expensive as ________. A. him B. he's C. he D. his 6. Lily and Lucy have arrived，but _______students aren't here yet. A. other B. others C. the other D. the others 7. There are high buildings on ______side of the street. A. both B. every C. any D.either 8. －What do you usually have for breakfast? －______eggs and ______milk. A Little ... a few B. A little ... a little C. A few ... a little D. A few ... a few 9. ______ is difficult in the world if you put your heart into it. A. Something B. Anything C. Nothing D. Everything 10. Is this story the same as ______in that book? A. the one B. what C. that D. it
实战： 1. There is _________old woman in the car. A. 不填 B. the C. a D. an 2. We often go to the park _______Sundays. A. on B. in C. at D. from 3. My book ________on the desk.
A. is B. am C. are D. be 4. Which language is ________, English, French or Chinese? A. difficult B. the difficult C. more difficult D. the most difficult 5. －________book is this? －It's Kate's. A. when B. Why C. Where D. whose 6.－Can you write a letter in English? －No, I _____. A. may not B. mustn't C. can't D. needn't 7. I ________my homework when Mike came last night. A. do B. was doing C. am doing D. have done 8. He began to ________English three years ago. A. learn B. learns C. learned D. learning 9. Jim is a driver, _______he? A. does B. doesn't C. is D. isn't 10. "What's wrong _________you?" the doctor asked. A. from B. with C. for D. at 11. He is rich, ________he isn't happy. A. or B. so C. and D. but
12.－Where is Alice? －She __________to the library. A. goes B. will go C. has gone D. had gone 13. "Help _________to some fish, Mary." My aunt said to me. A. themselves B. ourselves C. yourself D. himself 14. We'll stay at home if it ________tomorrow. A. rain B. rains C. is raining D. will rain 15. The students _________on a farm for ten days. Then they_________to a factory. Though they_______back school, they still remember those farmers and workers. A. have stayed, went , was B. had stayed, go , are C. have stayed, go, have been D. have stayed, went, were
第 3 讲：形容词
Spring is coming. The trees are green, and the flowers are beautiful. 多么美的季节啊！我们要去郊游, 去感受、去描绘我们周围美好的事物。形容词会帮你忙。可是形容词 怎么使用起来老出错呀？不是放错了位置，搞错了级别，就是在使用多个形容词作定语时排错了顺序。当然 了，形容词使用时需要遵循一些规则的。想知道吗？接着往下看。 a beautiful little new white wooden house 从这个长长的词中可以看出多个形容词作 定语时排列有一定的先后顺序。它们往往遵循以下规律：冠词或人称代词所有格+数词+性质+大小+形状 +表示老少、新旧+颜色+事物质地、人的国籍、用途。其实,你大可不必这样费神记,只要记住我给你的句子就 可以了。 There is something wrong with my bike。这句话可能让你挠挠头皮，为什么 wrong 放在 something 的后面呢？原来虽然大部分形容词做定语时的位置是放在名词之前的， 但当形容词所修饰的词 为 something，anything，nothing，everything 等以-thing 为字尾的词语时，形容词要后置。 形容词级别问题： a. Our classroom is twice larger than theirs。 （我们的教室是他们的两倍。 ）这种表示倍数的句子用 …times + 形容词比较级+than … 这样的格式。你记住了吗？ b. I'm three years older than you.（我比你大三岁。 ）表示"大三岁，""高二厘米"等时用"表示数量词的词+比 较级"。 c."越来越……"用"比较级+and +比较级"来表示。如：The earth is getting warmer and warmer。 （地球变得越 来越暖和。 ） d."越……就越……"用"the +比较级…，the+比较级…"来表示。如： The busier he is，the happier he feels。 (他越忙，越觉得高兴。)
最高级用法的用法就很简单了，提醒你一点，最高级要用于三者以上。还有几点是不得不提的： alone 和 lonely：I feel lonely, because I am alone at home. 你独自一人在家用 "alone" 表示"单独的"、"独自一人的"，它表示一个客观事实，在句中只能做表语。你在家感到寂寞， 用"lonely"，表示主观上感到 "孤独""寂寞"，指一种悲伤忧郁的情绪，可作定语和表语。 older 和 elder: Jack is older than me, he is my elder brother.杰克比我大要用"older"， 表示"年纪大的， 年老的"， 常用做表语；他是我的长兄用"elder"，表示"年老的，年长的"，用做定语，只用于比较两个人的长幼，只能 作表语。 接下来又到了我们趁热打铁的时间了，你准备好了吗？ 练习： 1. Tony is going camping with ___ boys. A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two 2. Which is the _______country, Japan or Australia? A. more developed B. more developing C. most developed D. most developing 3. － How was your recent visit to Qingdao? － It was great.We visited some friends，and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last 4. The books are not ________ to be published. A. enough intersting B. interesting enough C. so interesting D. too interesting 5.What's your _______sports? A. the most favorite B. most favorite C. favorite D. the favorite 6.There's ________ with the recorder A. anything wrong B. wrong anything C. something wrong D.wrong something 7. His sister is _______than he . A. younger five years B. five years younger C. five year younge D. five younger years
8.－We should speak English in and after class. －Yes, _____, ________. A. more , better B. the more, the bette C. much, better D. the often, the better 9. The old man lives alone, he feels ________. A. alone B. lonely C. lone D. alonely 10. I think bananas are ________of all the fruits. A. delicious B. much delicious C. more delicious D. the most delicious 实战： 1. －What's this in English? － It's ______apple. A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 2. I was born ________February 18, 1981. A. on B. in C. at D. of 3. There isn't ______water in the glass. A. some B. lots C. many D. any 4. － "________do you watch TV?" － " Twice a week." A. How long B. How far C. How often D. How many 5. I have two pencils, one is long, _______is short. A. another B. other C. the other D. others 6. They are poor, _______they are always happy.
A. and B. but C. or D. so 7. _______beautiful the flowers are! A. How B. What C. How a D. What a 8. －"Do you ________English?" － "Only a little." A. tell B. speak C. say D. talk 9. There are about _________students in our grade. A. two hundreds and twenty-five B. two hundreds and twenty five C. two hundred and twenty-five D. two hundred twenty-five 10. His name is Robert Thomas Brown. The students call him ________. A. Mr Robert B. Mr Thomas C. Mr Thomas Brown D. Mr Brown 11. Your books are here, where are _________? A. my B. mine C. I D. me 12. She will write to me sa soom as she _______in Paris. A. will arrive B. arrive C. arriving D arrives 13.－ "It's a fine day, ______?" － "Yes, let's go out for a walk." A. is it B. it is C. isn't it D. it isn't 14. Could you tell us________? A. when will the meeting start B. when the meeting will start C. the meeting will start when D. then meeting when will start
15.－ "My bike is broken, can you mend it?" － "Sorry, ______." A. I can't B. I won't C. I can D. I don't
第 4 讲：副词
学完了形容词，副词讲解起来会更容易一些。一般认为形容词+ly 就变成了副词，如形容词 quick 加上-ly 变成副词 quickly。但是象 friendly , lovely 虽然以 ly 结尾，但实则是形容词，She is friendly to me (她 对我很友好。)可千万不要误认为是副词哟！ 副词可修饰动词、形容词和副词，这些用法相信大家已经掌握。那我们挑选一下易混、易用错的来详细 讲解一下。 already 和 yet ： Where is Tom? He hasn't come yet. But Jack is already here . 这句话中又是 already，又有 yet，是怎么回事 吗？原来 already 和 yet 意思虽然相同，但用法有点小区别。表示事情早已发生或提前发生用 already，一般 放于句中，用于肯定句和疑问句。含有 already 的肯定句，变为否定句时，要将 already 变为 yet，且放在句 尾。yet 表示预料要发生的事未发生，位于句尾，一般用于否定句和疑问句中。 还迷糊吗？再迷糊，只好再看一看上面的例句喽。 hard 和 hardly： hard，hardly 两者虽然只有-ly 之差，意义却大不相同。hard 表示"辛苦，使劲，努力，"如：He works very hard.(他学习非常努力。 而 hardly 为否定副词， ) 表示"几乎不"。 The box is so heavy that he could 如： hardly carry it .（这箱子是那么沉，他几乎搬不动。 ） ago 和 before： ago 不能单独使用，应与 three days (months , weeks)等连用, 而且和动词的过去时连用。如： I met my neighbour an hour ago. Before 之前有"一段时间"时，指"距这段时间以前"，和过去完成时连用。如：He said he had finished the work two days before.（他说他两天前已完成了工作。 如果 before 单独使用，是泛指"以前"， ） 常常和完成时连用。如：I have seen the film before.（我以前没看过这部电影。 ） farther 和 further: far 有两种比较级，farther，further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。如： He runs farther than she does.（他比 她跑得远。 ）在美语中，farther 表示距离，further 表示进一步。 如： I have nothing further to say.（我没什么 要说的了。 ） 至于副词的比较级和最高级问题，参照形容词的就 OK 了。 试试趁热打铁如何？ 练习： 1. The teacher was very angry and decided to send ______school, so he wasn't a student any longer. A. away him from B. him away from the C. away him out of D. him away from 2. _______, he didn't fail in the English exam. A. Luck
B. Lucky C. Luckily D. Luckly 3.－Are you feeling ____? －Yes，I'm fine now. A. any well B.any better C.quite good D.quite better 4. The more we looked at the picture, _________. A. the less we liked it B. we like it less C. better we like it D. it looked better 5. After the new machine was introduced，the factory produced ___ shoes in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as 6. Our English needs to be______improved. A. farther B. farthest C. further D. far 7. What a pity! Lucy ran _______ more slowly than Lily. A. a few B. much C. a little D. little 8. He is running _______now. A. more slowly and more slowly B. slowlier and slowlier C. more and more slowly D. slowly and slowly 9. Last night my father went back _________later than before. A. quite B. very C. even D. much more 10.The sick man was too thin to go any _______. A. far B. farther C. further D. farthest
实战： 1. The answer is nice and soft. Shall I ______the shopkeeper if I can try it on? A. ask B. answer C. speak D. tell 2. Tickets, please. May I ______your ticket please, madam? A. show B. watch C. find D.see 3. It's not good to ______when you are waiting for a bus. A. stand in line B. get on well C. jump the queue D. wait for your turn 4. It's hard to count the monkeys, they're running and jumping__________. A. at times B. all the time C. more or less D. right away 5. I'm sorry, we've _______the shoes in your size. A. paid for B. put on C. sold out D. put away 6. Weihua's pen was________, so she needed a new one. A. broken B. long C. cheap D. here 7. You can often buy things from their shop _______home. A. of the way B. by the way C. another way of D. on your way 8. The teacher in the school library is very________. You must return your library book on time! A. kind B. lonely C. strict D. polite 9. Thanks to man-make satellite, the world itself is becoming a much smaller_____. A. space B. place C. room
D. universe 10. I like the sweater, but it ________too much. A. uses B. takes C. costs D. spends 11. Father Christmas lands on top of _______house and climbs down the chimney into the fire-place. A. each B. all C. either D. both 12. The ice is very thin. It's _______dangerous _____walk on it. A. so, that B. as, as C. from, to D. too, to 13. One day his mother was ill. She ______a doctor. A. sent for B. sent away C. sent up D. fell behind 14. He _______the radio and listened to the music. A. opened B. turned on C. turned off D. closed 15. The doctor _______Mrs Brown very carefully and then said: " There's nothing much wrong with you." A. watched B. operated C. looked over D. looked after
第 5 讲：动词
我们步步深入,开始接触到整个句子的 heart--动词了。掌握了动词，你学起英语来就会感到驾轻就熟了。 告诉你，一定要记牢动词的现在分词，过去式，过去分词，如果在这些小地方丢分，那才讨厌呢。比如：catch 的过去式和过去分词(caught，caught) 你可能就不知道吧?痛下决心，好好记一记吧。下面呢，我们就各个击 破。先讲系动词。 系动词：大概是最简单的动词了。你只需注意的是系动词除了 be 的形式之外，还有 become，get，grow， turn，sound，look，smell，taste 等，它们不能单独作谓语,必须和作表语的词语(如形容词, 名词等) 连用, 所 以用的时候，可要小心为是呀！如：It smells delicious.(它闻起来味道很美)。delicious 是形容词，不是副词。 情态动词：首先要记住情态动词后必跟动词原形。must 和 need 几乎是每年的必考题，这里我们重点讲 一下。 must 的意思是"应当，必须"，侧重于说话者的主观看法，没有时态变化，其否定式是 mustn't，在"Must I(we) ...."的疑问句中， 须注意的是其否定回答常用 needn't。 Must I go?(我一定要走吗?) No,you needn't.(不， 如： 不必。) need 意为"需要"。既可作实义动词，又可作情态动词，因此在用法上需要注意。作实义动词时，need 后
跟名词，动名词，或不定式。如：I need to go. (我得走了。) 作情态动词时，后跟动词原形。如：You needn't come tomorrow if you are busy. (如果你忙，明天就不必来了。) 实意动词： 实意动词可谓家族兴旺，人员众多。我们跑(run)，我们跳(jump)，我们笑(laugh)，这些都得 用实意动词来表达。我们一起来看一看一些特殊的词吧。它们在接动名词和不定式时意义有所不同。 stop：这个词让好多同学大伤了一番脑筋，到底什么时候加 to do，什么时候加 doing 呢?两者意义又有什么不同呢?OK, Come with me. 看下面两个句子。 When the teacher came in, they stopped to read. When the teacher came in, they stopped talking. 第一句的意思是"当老师进来时，他们停下来开始读书"。而第二句的意思是 "老师进来时，他们停止了 说话"。所以 stop to do sth 表示"停止正在做的事情去干另一件事"。而 stop doing 表示"中断正在做的某事"。 现在明白了吗? forget，remember，regret 这三个词用法基本相同，只要记住+doing 表示"事情已经做过"，+to do 表示" 事情还未做"就可以了。 forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做) 如： light The is still on. He forgot to turn it off. 灯还在亮着，他忘记关了。 ( 没有做关灯的动作) He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。( 已做过关灯的动作) 感官动词： see,watch, notice,look at,hear,listen to,smell,taste,feel 等 +do 表示动作的完整性， 真实性 +doing 表示动作的连续性，进行性。如：I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强 调"我看见了"这个事实) I saw him working in the garden yesterday.（强调"我见他正干活"这个动作）昨天我见 他正在花园里干活。 又到了我们趁热打铁的时间了，好学的你准备好了吗? 练习： 1. Wang Lin _______some help. Can you help him? A. needs B. want C. need to D. ask 2. All of us enjoy _______football very much. A. play B. playing C. played D. to play 3. ---- The light in the classroom is still on. ---- Oh，I forgot___. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off 4. I regret ___ the window. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having broken 5. His grandparents saw her ___ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew
C. was growing D. to grow 6. ---What's this in English? ---Sorry, I can't _____it in English. A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk 7. --- _____I finish my homwork today? ---No, you needn't. A. Can B. May C. Must D. Need 8. In Spring , the days ______longer and longer, the trees _______green. A. get, turn B. gets, turns C. got, turned D. have got, have turned 9. When the traffic lights are red, you ________stop. A. can B. must C. won't D. needn't 10. When the teacher came into the classroom, I ________to my deskmate. A. stopped to talk B. stopped talking C. stop to talk D. stop talking
实战： 1. ---Whose calculator is it? --- It's ______. A. she's B. hers C. her D. she 2. _______December 23, Mr and Mrs Hopkens flew to London for a trip. A. on B. in C. at D. for 3. The Science Museum is located ________the centre of the town. A. with B. near
C. beside D. in 4. Do you think maths is ________important than English? A. very B. as C. more D. quite 5. The captain has a _______daughter. A. five-years-old B. five years old C. five year old D. five -year-old 6. Two fishermen saw ______in the sky while they were fishing by a river. A. something strange B. anything strange C. strange something D. strange anything 7. They got a Christmas tree and it was ______ours. A. so tall as B. so taller as C. as tall as D. as taller as 8. Who's ______woman over there? A. / B. the C. a D. an 9. A: _______have the scientists been there?B. For about two years. A. How many times B. How C. What time D. How long 10. _______that pair of new ________expensive? A. Is, shoe B. Are, shoe C. Is, shoes D. Are, shoes 11. Dick jumped into a large hole ________he saw the bear. A. while B. as soon as C. until D. if 12. _______cold weather it is at the South Pole! A. What B. What an C. How
D. What a 13. I don't know ________last night. A. why they didn't go to the movies B. when they didn't go to the movies C. why didn't they go to the movies D. when didn't they go to the movies 14. There aren't many oranges here, but you can take _______if you want to. A. few B. a few C. a little D. little 15. Tom failed in the exam. He looked ________. A. happy B. sadly C. upset D. lovely
第 6 讲：不定式
不定式和动词象一对姐妹一样亲密，本不该拆开来讲，可是篇幅有限，只能让他们分开了。不定式的构 成非常简单，告诉我是什么？对！是 to+动词原形。当然啦，to 有时也可以不带。动词不定式没有人称和数 的变化，可以担当除谓语外的任何句子成分。那什么时候可以不带 to 呢? Listen to me carefully. 不定式省 to 有四种情况： 使役动词 let,have,make 等后接不定式。如：Let him go! 让他走! would rather，had better 后。如：You had better stay at home.你最好呆在家里。 Why... / why not...后。如：Why not have a good rest on Sunday? 为什么星期天不好好休息一下呢? 感官动词 see, watch, look at, hear, listen to, smell,feel, find 等后作宾补，省 to。如：I saw him dance. 我看 见他跳舞。 注意：这些情况在被动句中可千万不可省 to 哟！ 如：The boss made them work the whole night. 变成被 动句：They were made to work the whole night. 不定式的特殊用法： It 与不定式：动词不定式可以做主语，但如果动词不定式太长，显得头重脚轻的，那么我们就可用形式 主语 it 代替，而把真正主语(即不定式)放于句尾。 如: It is not difficult for me to study English well.(对我来说学好英语是可能的。) 不定式还可以充当句子的宾语，但有些动词，如 find，think，believe 等，在语法上不能接受不定式作宾 语，只有用 it 作形式宾语，从而把动词不定式置于句尾。这样的不定式可继续充当其宾语的作用。 如: I found it difficult to fall asleep.我发现很难入睡。 还有一点：动词不定式，还可用在 how，when，where，what，which 等疑问代词或副词之后，与其共同 作宾语。如：I don't know how to use a computer.我不知道怎样使用电脑。Remember? too...to...和 enough...to：too...to 表达"太 ... 一致于不能..."。 enough ... to 表达 "足以..."。这两个词组的用法用两个例子就可以说清楚了。 The box is too heavy for me to lift.这个箱子太沉了，我提不动。 He is old enough to go to school.他到上学的年龄了。也就是说，他的年龄足够上学了。记住这两个句子就 可以举一反三，应用自如。你记住了吗？ 好吧，再试一把趁热打铁！
练习： 1. Tell him ___ the window. A. to close not B. not to close C. to not close D. not close 2. Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 3. You'd better _______the story in Japanese. A. say B. speak C. tell D. talk 4. The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating 5. ---- I usually go there by train. ---- Why not ___ by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going 6. There are some books on the floor, would you like ________? A. to pick them up B. to pick up them C. pick it up D. pick up it 7. She is very ill, let's _______a doctor at once. A. to wake up B. send for C. to pay for D. pay for 8. I want ________a teacher when I grow up. A. to be B. to C. be D. being 9. It's cold here. You'd better ______ your coat. A. not take out B. not to take down C. not take off
D. not to take away 10. My mother told me ________more water. A. drinking B. drank C. to drink D. drink
实战： 1.d better _______read in the sun. A. not to B. not C. don't D. to 2. You aren't a new driver, are you? _______. A. No, I am B. Yes, I'm not C. No, you are D. Yes, I am 3. Must I stay here now?_________. A. No, you mustn't B. No, you needn't C. Yes, you can D. Yes, you may 4. There is _______ "s" in the word "bus". A. a B. an C. the D. / 5. Neithere of us ______a doctor. A. is B. isn't C. are D. aren't 6. Who was the first in the girls'_________race? A. 400 metre B. 400-metre C. 400 metres D. 400-metres 7. It's too noisy here, I can't _______. A. go to sleep B. fall to sleep C. sleeping D. get to sleep 8. The story happened ________ the evening of October 20, 1995. A. at
B. on C. in D. to 9. Could I speak to Mr Gao, please? ________. He has gone to the hospital. A. I think so B. Certainly, you can C. I'm afraid not D. I'm not sure 10. I'm sorry to trouble you, Miss Hu. ________. A. Fine, thank you. B. All right. C. It's very kind of you . D. It doesn't matter. 11. Can you tell me where________? A. is the post office B. the post office is C. does the post office D. the post office does 12. In England, the first name is _______name, but in China, the first name is ______ name. A. family, given B. given, family C. family, family D. given, given 13. Li Ping met an old friend of _______ on a train yesterday. A. he B. him C. his D. her 14. Kate is ________ girl. A. a eighteen-year-old B. a eighteen-years-old C. an eighteen -years-old D. an eighteen-year-old 15. Our city is getting ________. A. beautiful and beautiful B. beautifuler and beautifuler C. more and more beautiful D. more beautifler and more beautifuler
第 7 讲 介词
别看介词是一种虚词，它在句中的作用却非常重要。它用来表明名词与句中其他词的关系， 不能单独使用。常考点包括一些固定搭配和一些近义词。固定搭配如：on one's way home,help...with,send for,be interested in..., be late for, be angry with,be good at 等。当然这需要你好好记忆了。 常用介词解析及用法比较：
at,on 和 in：这三个介词在试卷中的出现频率极高。对于它们的的分辨只要记住一句话就可以了。at 表 示点， 表示线， 表示面。 on in 什么意思呢？也就是说它们表达的范围逐渐增大。 six o'clock, at noon, at the age at of sixteen 等用 at 表示时刻或时间的点以及年龄。 具体到一周中的各天,日期及某特定的一天早上,下午,晚上： on on Saturday，on July 1st，on my birthday，on the morning of July 16th，on a spring afternoon。in 表达的范围更 大一些。 与世纪、 年代、 季节、 月份以及早上、 上午、 晚上等连用。 如： the seventh century， 1950's ,in 2000, in in in the morning 等。 for,since：for 表示多长时间。since 后接时间起点,其终点往往为现在，常与完成时连用。牢牢记住哟。 after, in ：这两个介词都可以表示时间"在以后"的意思。其区别是：after 以过去为起点，表示过去一段时 间之后，常用于过去时态的句子；in 以现在为起点，表示将来一段时间以后，常用于将来时态的句子。 by，with，in：by 表示"以...的方式，方法，手段" 和 "乘某种交通工具"；with 指"借助于具体的手段或工 具"；in 表示"以......方式，用语言，文字等媒介"。 for 和 of：试比较：It's impossible for me to watch TV after eleven o'clock. It's kind of you to help me. 两句中介词的选择依据其前形容词而定,一般来说,of 之前的形容词往往是用于描写人的品质的好坏，人自身 的特点，如聪明与否，细心与粗心等；for 之前的形容词用于描写事物的特点，如可能性，必然性，难易程度 等。 好，又到了趁热打铁的时间了，来检测一下你的学习成效如何？ 练习： 1. Can you tell the story ______Russian? A. with B. in C. on D. by 2. Here are some birthday cards ______ our teachers, ______ our best wishes. A. of, with B. for, with C. of, in D. for, in 3. The visitors _______Japan arrived _____ Beijing station last Tuesday morning . A. from, at B. of , to C. from , to D. of, on 4. He's badly hurt, we must send _____ a doctor at once. A. to B. up C. on D. for 5. Do you usually come to school ______ foot or _____- bike? A. by ... by B. on... on C. on ... by D. by ... on 6. --when was Jim born? --______July, 18,1978. A.on B.at
C. in D.to 7. WeiFang bought a new pen at a shop _____ her way home. A. on B. at C. in D. to 8. Don't tell anybody about it. Keep it a secret _______ you and me. A. among B. between C. in D. with 9. The teacher will be back ______ an hour. A. in B. after C. of D. at 10. -- How long have you been in Beijing ? --I've been here _____ 1989. A. in B.since C.on D.for 实战： 1. ______man in brown is _____friend of my fathere's . A. The.. the B. The ... a C. A... a D. A... the 2. Here is a letter ______ you. It's ______your aunt. A. to... for B. for... to C. from ... to D. for ... from 3. The twins are ____ interested in Chinese food. A. all B. both C. neither D. each 4. It is ______ hot in Nanjing in summer. A. too much B. much too C. much more D. so much 5.That's too dear. Have you got_______?
A. cheaper something B. everything cheaper C. cheaper anything D. anything cheaper 6. --Can I go out to play football now? --No, you _______. You must do your homework first. A. won't B. can't C. needn't D. don't 7. The boy didn't go to bed _______ he was asked to. A. while B. since C. until D. as soon as 8. Lesson Two is ______ than Lesson One . A. much difficult B. much more difficult C. the most difficult D. little difficult 9. You'd better _______ here any longer. A. don't stay B. not to stay C. to not stay D. not stay 10. It _______ him half an hour to ride a bike to get here. A. spent B. used C. took D. paid 11. Mrs Read doesn't know ______ for her daughter. A. what will she buy B. which will she buy C. to buy what D. what she will buy 12. These childern have never seen snow, _______they? A. do B. don't C. haven't D. have 13. Why _______ shopping at once? A. don't go B. not go to C. didin't go D. not go 14. The Great Wall ______ all over the world .
A. is being known B. was known C. has known D. is known 15. My friend has worked in that hospital_________. A. since it opened B. for it opened C. since it opens D. since it is open
第 8 讲：连词
好了，现在我们在攻克词类的最后一个堡垒——连词。连词更好对付了，我们只讲几个常考 的词组 就可以了。 连词常考到的有以下几个词组： both ...and：表示"两者都...".注意：当 both...and 连接主语时，后面动词一般要用复数。如：Both Lily and Lucy are right. not only... but also: "不仅...而且..."。注意：后面动词采用就近原则,与 but also 后的词保持一致。 如：Not only my parents but also my brother likes the cat. either...or:"或者...或者..."。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。如：Either you or I am wrong. neither...nor："既不...也不..." 是 "either...or" 的否定形式。谓语动词采用就近原则，与 nor 后的 词保持一致。 如：Neither you nor he is right. or 的用法： 意思为"否则"。如：I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam.(我必须好好学习，否则 我会考不及格了。) So easy, not difficult at all! OK! Let's come to our 趁热打铁。 练习： 1. _________ John _______I are policemen. A. Neither ... nor B. Either ... or C. Both ... and D. Not only... but also 2. Mr Smith teaches ______well ______ his lessons are not easily forgotten. A. very ... that B. quite ... but C. so ... as D. so ... that 3. He didn't go to sleep ______he finished his homework. A. till B. before C. after D. until 4. I didn't buy the dictionary yesterday ________ my aunt would give me one. A. until B. because C. if D. before
5. The runner fell _______ he quickly got up and went on running. A. or B. and C. but D. down 6. Wait for me in the room _______ I come back. A. until B. and C. so D. or 7. I'll return the books to the library ______ soon as possible. A. as B. so C. just D. but 8. Go along the road, _______ you'll find the market at the end of it. A. when B. and C. or D. though 9. You'll be late ______ you don't get up early tomorrow morning. A. if B. when C. before D. until 10. It was late. She washed her face ______ went to bed. A. or B. and C. so D. but 实践： 1. Mr Lin often comes to the park to do morning exerciese at this time of ______ day. A. the B. a C. 不填 D. an 2. This is _______business, not mine. A. Mr Yang and Mr Zhang's B. Mr Yang and Mr Zhang C. Mr Yang's and Mr Zhang D. Mr Yang's and Mr Zhang's 3. I have got ______ news from my friend. Do you want to know? A. a very good B. any C. a piece of D. two pieces
4. She _______ a thick coat today, though it isn't very cold. A. is wearing B. put on C. dressed D. is dressing 5. That woman is very tired, so she ________. A. stopped to work B. stopped having a good rest C. stopped to have a rest D. stopped to working 6. --Hello, who are you ________? --My mother. A. waiting B. waiting for C. finding D. looking 7. My uncle went to Moscow to do some business three months ______? A. before B. later C. ago D. after 8. Edison was cleverer than _______ students in his class, but his teacher didin't know this. A. all the B. other C. another D. the others 9. I don't know where Jack is now. ________- in the cinema. A. Maybe he B. May be he C. He might be D. He may be 10.It was ______ dark _____ we couldn't see anything clearly. A. very, that B. too, to C. so, as D. so, that 11.There are two dictionaries on his desk, but ______ of them is useful to me. A. all B. neither C. both D. either 12. _______I saw him driving a car across the street. A. Right now B. Just a moment C. Right away D. Just now
13. She will be back by air from shanghai________. A. in a week B. after a week C. a week later D. until a week 14. You may pay attention to your writing ______ nobody can understand what you want to write. A. but B. and C. or D. that 15. The test is ______ easier and _____ interesting than that one. A. more, much B. much, more C. more, more D. much, much
第 9 讲：时态一
提起时态，当然是指动词的时态啦。过去、现在和未来等不同时间段发生的事情要用不同的时态来表示。 时态是动词的一种形式，表示动作或状态发生或存在的时间和方式。闭上眼睛想一想，初中我们学过的时态 有几个? 初中我们共学过八种时态。本讲将这几个时态总体介绍一下: 一般现在时：常与 always,often,sometimes, every day 连用，表示习惯或经常反复发生的动作或存在的状 态。提醒你当第三人称单数做主语时，别忘了动词的变化。注意：象"地球大，月亮小"等客观真理、事实一 定用一般现在时。 现在进行时：要注意其构成：由 be+动词+ing,表示说话时正在进行的动作。如：We're studying now. 我们 现在正在学习。 一般过去时：表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态，常与 yesterday,last year,in 1949,two years ago, 等表示过去时间的状语连用。注意：We often went to dance last summer.有的同学一见到 often 就想到用一般现 在时，其实因为后面有表示过去时间的 last summer,所以要用过去式，千万别误用了，切记，切记。 过去进行时：显然过去进行时表示过去某一时刻正在做什么，常和特定的时间状语如 at that time，at six yesterday，at that moment，when he came in 等连用。如： When he knocked at the door,his mother was cooking. 一般将来时：表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态，常与表示将来时间状语如 next year,tomorrow 等连用。 注意：在 Will you ....?问句中，回答必须是 Yes,I will.或 No,I won't 而不能用 Yes,I shall. No, I shan't.来回答过 去将来时：过去将来时不可以单独使用，它一般在宾语从句中作间接引语，表示从过去某一时间看来将要发 生的动作或存在的状态。如：They told me that they would go to work in Guangdong. 现在完成时：顾名思义，现在完成时表示的是已经完成的动作，但动作造成的影响还在，常被 just,already,yet 等副词修饰。如：He has already gone to Tianjin. 对现在造成的影响是他已经不在这儿了。现 在完成时还可用来表示过去发生的动作一直延续到现在，常带有 for 或 since 等表示一段时间的状语。如： Mr Wang has lived here since 1983.表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作，我们常用"过"来表示，常带有 twice, once, ever, never 等时间状语。如：I've never seen that film. 过去完成时：我们可以用"过去的过去"来概括过去完成时，表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前已经完成 了的动作，通常与 by,before 等构成的短语或 when, before, after 引导的从句连用。也可表示过去某一时间开 始，一直延续到过去另一时间的动作，常和 for 或 since 构成的时间状语连用。用法和现在完成时大致相同， 只不过又向前推了一个时态。 八个时态可能得让你好好对付一阵子，但细细学来，也并不困难。不信吗? 试试趁热打铁你就知道了。 练习：
1. The zoo _______ in the north of the city. A. lies B. builds C. seems D. lying 2. --Tom ______out. --Oh, is he? What time _______ he ______ out? A. is, did, go B. went, is, going C. has gone, did, go D. is going, does, go 3. --It must be on channel 2. Try that. --I ______ that. But I still can't get anything. A. have tried B. tried C. try D. will do 4. They usually ________ TV in the evening. A. watch B. will watch C. are watching D. watches 5. He has _______ for about twelve years. A. bought the house B. left here C. lived here D. gone here 6. The two old man ________ each other since 1970. A. didn't seen B. don't see C. haven't see D. won't see 7. Lucy and Lily can speak good Chinese, because they ______ China for six years. A. have been in B. have been to C. have come to D. have gone to 8. --Our country ______ a lot so far. --Yes, I hope it will be even ________. A. has changed , well B. changed, good C. has changed , better D. changed, better 9. --I saw Ann _______ a green dress at the meeting. --I think she looks better _______ red. A. dressed , in
B. put on, wear C. wearing, in D. wear, put on 10. --I didn't come to school because my mother was ill yesterday. --I am sorry ______ that. A. hearing B. hear C. hears D. to hear 实践： 1. There will be ______ interesting film tomorrow evening. A. a B. an C. the D. some 2. --What's that over there ? -- It's ______ bag. A. I B. me C. my D. mine 3. The students of Class One ______ on the playground. A. am playing B. is playing C. are playing D. was playing 4. You'd better _______ late next time! A. not be B. not to be C. won't be D. don' t be 5. He always gets up early, _______ he? A. is B. isn't he C. does D. doesn't 6. ______ tall the building is! A. How a B. How C. What D. What a 7. Lesson Seven is ________ one in this book. A. important B. more important C. most important D. the most important
8. I will call you as soon as she ________ back. A. comes B. come C. came D. will come 9. He put on his coat ______ went out. A. and B. but C. or D. so 10. --______ I get there before six o'clock? -- No, you needn't. A. Can B. May C. Must D. Shall 11. Their baby was born ______ April 2, 1997. A. in B. on C. at D. by 12. Her father is busy _______ the truck. A. mend B. mends C. mended D. mending 13. We ________ the floor when she left. A.sweep B. swept C. were sweeping D. are sweeping 14. He wants ________ some apples and oranges. A. to buy B. buys C. bought D. buy 15. Do you understand ______? A. what did he say B. he said what C. what does he say D. what he said
第 10 讲：时态 (二) 二
时态的运用比较复杂，好多同学因为做题时不知应用哪种时态而挠头皮。其实你只要把易混的时态掌握 好，对你来说时态就没有什么难点可言了。而你易混的时态无非是一般过去时和现在完成时，一般过去时和 过去完成时的比较罢了。这有何难?看看下面的分析，你会发现一切"as easy as A B C"。
一般过去式和现在完成时： 一般过去式只是表示事情发生在过去， 陈述一个事实， 它可以和确定的表示过去的时间状语如： night, last in 1999, three days ago 等连用。而现在完成时表示某一完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果，强调的是现在 的情况，所以它不能和确定的表示过去的时间状语连用。 如： We have seen that film. 我们已看过那部电影。 对现在造成的影响是我们对影片已有所了解。 We saw the film last night. 昨天晚上我们看了那部电影。只说明昨天晚上看电影这一事实。 注意：有些时间状语，如 this morning,tonight, this month 等，既可用于一般过去时，又可用于现在完成 时，但所表达的意义有所不同。用于现在完成时表示包括现在在内，而用于一般过去式则与现在无关。如： I have read this book this April.(说话时仍然为四月。) I read this book this April. (说话时四月份已过。) 一般过去式和过去完成时的比较： 一般过去式表示过去时间发生的动作或存在的状态，而过去完成时在过去某一时间或动作之前已完成的 动作或状态，即"过去的过去"。当强调过去某一动作发生在某一动作之前时，常用此时态。 如： He had finished his homework before nine o'clock. 九点之前他已经完成了作业。实际上，一般现在 时和过去完成时常搭配使用。如： When he got home, his daughter had already gone to bed. 当他到家的时候， 他的女儿早已去睡觉了。 在带有 after 和 before 引导的时间状语从句的复合句中， 由于从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已 经非常明确，所以可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 如：He called on me soon after he had finished his homework. 他做完作业后不久便来拜访我。也可以说： He called on me soon after he finished his homework. 哇塞，我们终于学完了所有时态，摩拳擦掌，试试趁热打铁！ 练习： 1. Zhao Lan ____ already ___ in this school for two years. A. was...studying B. will ... study C. has ...studied D. are studying 2. They usually _____ TV in the evening. A. watch B. will watch C. are watching D. watches 3. Judy _____ the Great Wall twice, and now she still ______ to go there. A. went to , wanted B. goes to , wants C. has gone , wants D. has been to, wants 4. She will find him a kind man when she _______ more about him. A. knows B. know C. will know D. is going to know 5. --What are you going to give our teacher for Teacher's Day? --I'm not sure. Maybe I _____ him some flowers. A. have given B. will give C. gave
D. give 6. --Tom ______ out. --Oh, is he? What time _____ he _____ out? A. is, did, go B. went, is ,going C. has gone, did, go D. is going, does, go 7. It's nine o'clock now, they ______ an English class. A. have B. are having C. having D. will have 8. --" Where is Li Lei?" --" He _______ his sports shoes in the room. He ______ football with his friends." A. is putting on , is playing B. puts on, will play C. is putting on , will play D. put on, played 9. Miss Smith with her parents ______ China since _________. A. have been in , two years ago B. has gone to, two years C. have been to, two years D. has been in, two years ago 10. When I knocked at the door, my mother _______. A. is cooking B. cooked C. was cooking D. cooks 实践： 1. Jack's father is ______ doctor. A. a B. an C. some D. / 2. He often does some washing ______ Sunday. A. at B. in C. on D. by 3. This room is ours, and that one is ________. A. they B. them C. their D. theirs 4. Tom is _______ boy in his class.
A. tall B. taller C. tallest D. the tallest 5. "Can you come here next Friday?" "Sorry, I _______." A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not 6. Did you ______ the football match last night? A. see B. watch C. look D. read 7. There ________ many high buildings in this city. A. is B. are C. have D. has 8. John has two brothers. One is an artist, ________ is a scientist. A. the others B. another C. the other D. others 9. The man asked the policeman _______. A. let hime to go B. to let him to go C. let him go D. to let him go 10. Please _______ page 54 and read lesson Twelve. A. turn to B. turn into C. turn in D. turn on 11. He did not go home ______ he finished the work. A. of B. because C. until D. since 12. The old man was _______ tired that she couldn't walk on. A. so B. too C. very D. quite 13. We are busy ________ our lessons these days.
A. prepare B. preparing C. to prepare D. prepared 14. I'll go with you if I ________ free tomorrow. A. will be B. shall be C. am D. was 15. Do you know ________? A. where does he live B. where he lives C. he where lives D. he lives where
第 11 讲：动词语态
和时态一样，语态也是动词的一种形式，用来说明句中主语和谓语的关系。如果动作由主语执行，就可 使用主动语态，如果主语不是由主语执行，主语是动作的承受者，则可使用被动语态。由此我们可以看出英 语动词有两种语态：主动语态和被动语态。 被动语态：表示主语是动作的承受者，什么事情被主语做。被动语态的构成和形式被动语态由"助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词"构成，一定要记住是及物动词。助动词必须与主语的人称和数一致，注意要与我们 前一讲学过的八个时态配合使用。 适合被动语态的情况： 不知道动作由谁发出， 或由于某种原因没有必要说明谁发出动作。 如： This table is made of wood. 需 要突出或强调动作的承受者时，如： This park was built for children. 注意：主动句中的主语如果是 people，they，somebody 等含糊的表示"人或人们"，没有确指执行者是谁， 为被动句时，通常省略"by+执行者"。如：The door was opened secretly. But nobody came in. 注意：在主动句里,不定式在 make，see，hear 等动词后面作宾语补足语时都不带 to，但变成被动句时， 后面的不定式都需带 to。如：He was made to do that work. 主动语态不能变被动语态的情况：学了被动语态，别以为主动句和被动句可以随意转换，千万要注意呀！ 有些主动语态不能转换成被动语态。当宾语是反身代词时, 如：You should take care of yourself. 当谓语是表 状态的而不是表具体动作的及物动词时，如：Does the skirt suit you? 练习： 1. The stars _______ in the daytime. A. can't see B. can't be seen C. can't been see D. see 2. A present _______ to me by Mother next week. A. will give B. is given C. will be give D. will be given 3. The Communist Party of China _______ in Shanghai in 1921. A. was found
B. found C. was founded D. founded 4. Great changes _______ in my hometown since liberation. A. have been taken place B. took place C. have taken place D. were taken place 5. I was astonished (吃惊) to hear that the colour TV set _______ 5,000 yuan. A. has cost B. cost C. costed D. was cost 6. He was seen _________ something from the shop. A. steel B. to steal C. to be stolen D. stealed 7. She has _________ by her classmates. A. laughed B. laughed at C. been laughed D. been laughed at 8. The computer ________ in the room. A. can use B. can be use C. can be used D. can used 9. That clock ______ Big Ben. A. call B. calling C. is called D. calls 10. The film _______ again sometimes next week. A. shows B. will shows C. will be showed D. shows 实践： 1. I have never seen _____ UFO in ______ sky. A. a , the B. an , the C. a, a D. the, a 2. --How is your brother's housework done?
--________ A. Good B. All right C. Quite well D. Very bad 3. They come from England . They are _______. A. Englishman B. English C.Englishmans D.an English 4. Would you please give me _____ colour pencils? A. any B. some C. a little D. much 5. My father is sleeping now, could you ____ the radio a bit? A. turn up B. turn on C. turn down D. turn off 6. It will be Children's Day soon and we're now ____ busy ____a bee. A. as...as B. as ... like C. like...as D. so ... like 7. --Well ,______? --I have a headache, doctor. A. how do you do B. what's the matter with you C. how are you feeling like D. what kind of illness do you have 8. The teacher told the boy _____ it again. A. don't do B. does not do C. to not do D. not to do 9. I left here, ________. A. Mary does B. so does Mary C. Mary did so D. so did Mary 10. --Who teaches _____ English? --Mr Lin. A. you B. your C. she
D. Tom's 11. Have you finished _______ the book? A. read B. to read C. reading D. reads 12. The farmers taught us ______. A. to how pick apples. B. how pick apples. C. how picking apples D. how to pick apples 13. --______ I watch Pro. Brown from morning till night? --No, you needn't. A. Must B. Can C. May D. Need. 14. Do you know ________? A. how long has he lived here B. how long he has lived here C. he has lived here how long D. he has lived how long here 15. We will go to the Great wall if it ______ tomorrow. A. doesn't rain B. won't rain C. isn't raining D. didn't rain
句子种类（ 第 12 讲：句子种类（一）
我们都知道，根据句子的使用目的，句子可分为陈述句，疑问句，祈使句，感叹句。疑问句是常考的重 点，也是要掌握的难点，这里我们先重点讲一下. 疑问句中我们只讲一讲难掌握的反意疑问句和特殊疑问句. 反意疑问句: 在陈述句之后附上一个简短问句，对陈述句所叙述的事实提出相反的疑问,这种疑问句叫做 反意疑问句. 如前面陈述句部分是肯定式，后面问句部分一般用是否定式；如前一部分是否定式，后一部分 一般用肯定式.前后两部分在人称，数及时态上通常保持一致. 如：You are a student，aren't you?(你是学生， 对吗?) 在祈使句后面用反意疑问句，要注意人称的变化。 如：Go to the cinema，will you? 在省略的感叹句后面，要注意主语的单复数。 如：What fine weather，isn't it? 陈述句部分的主语如是 I，疑问部分要用 aren't I. 如: I'm as tall as your sister，aren't I? 陈述部分用 never，hardly，few，nothing,nobody,few,seldom,hardly,little 等否定含义的词时，疑问部分用 肯定含义. 如: He seldom came here,did he? 陈述句部分的谓语是 used to 时，疑问部分用 didn't+主语或 usedn't +主语. 如: He used to go to school at seven, didn't he? / usedn't he? 陈述部分有 had better + v. 疑问句部分用 hadn't you? 如: You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?
陈述部分有 You'd like to +v.疑问部分用 wouldn't+主语. 如：You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you? 主语是 everyone， someone， anyone， one 等不定代词时， no 多用 they 指代. 如： Everyone is here， aren't they?(所有的人都来了吗?) 主语是 everything，something，anthing，nothing 时，用 it 指代。省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句，疑问 部分用 will you。如: Don't do that again, will you? 注意 Let's 开头的祈使句，后用 shall we? Let us 开头的祈 使句，后用 will you? 陈述部分是"there be"结构的，疑问部分用 there 省略主语代词。如: There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? 特殊疑问句: 注意疑问词 how many how much , how often , how old, how long, what, what time, what day , what colour, which , when , who, whose 等疑问词的用法。 练习： 1. Don't forget to give the baby some food ,______? A. will you? B. shall we C. won't you D. do you 2. You have met before, _______? A. haven't you B. have you C. do you D. don't you 3. She has never read the book before, _______? A. has she B. hasn't she C. is she D. isn't she 4. Mike has to finish her work now, _______? A. has he B. hasn't he C. does he D. doesn't he 5. --"Don't smoke in the dining-hall, will you?" -- "_________." A. Yes, I agree B. Yes, of course, C. Yes, I don't think so D. What's wrong 6. --______ did you stay in Urumqi last summer? --For two weeks. A. How often B. How C. How long D. How many times 7. He nearly hurt himself in the accident, _______? A. doesn't he
B. didn't he C. did he D. does he 8. --_______ will your aunt be back from work? --In an hour. A. How soon B. How often C. How long D. What time 9. The old man had to do the farm work himself, ________? A. did he B. didn't he C. had he D. weren't he 10. --"________ do they have a meeting?" --"Every two weeks." A. How long B. How often C. When D. What time 实践： 1. Mr Williams will visit our school again some _______ day. A. the other B. another C. an other D. other 2. We shall never laugh _________ people when they are _______ trouble. A. on, in B. at, in C. on, to D. to, at 3. "Thank you for your help.""_______." A. You are welcome B. It doesn't matter C. You are kind D. It's no need 4. To learn English well is not easy, ______ it is important for us. A. and B. so C. or D. but 5. "Must I get there before eight?""No, you______." A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't
D. must 6. My sister isn't there, she _______ to Beijing. A. went B. will go C. has been D. has gone 7. New factory _______ in our hometown next year. A. build B. will build C. will be built D. is building 8. I don't think he is doing his homework,______?" A. is he B. isn't he C. does he D. don't I 9. I enjoyed _______ to school in the morning last year. A. to run B. run C. runing D. running 10. Sorry, I've kept you ________ for a long time. A. wait B. waiting C. to wait D. waited 11. _______ mother told _______ an interesting story yesterday. A. Mine, I B. My, I C. My, me D. My, my 12. His grandma ______ in 1968. She has been _________ for years. A. died, died B. dead, died C. dead, died D. died, dead 13. The old man is _______ under the tree. A. lying B. lie C. laying D. to lie 14. He runs ________ than his classmates. A. fastest B. the fastest C. fast D. faster
15. The twins' father is standing ________ them. A. among B. between C. during D. above
句子的种类(二 第 13 讲：句子的种类 二)
本讲主要讲一下感叹句,祈使句,再顺便提一下强调句. 感叹句注意事项： 感叹句往往由 what 和 how 引导。至于 what 和 how 的区别则是再好辨别不过了。跟我背一背下面的顺口 溜,感叹句你就不再陌生了. 感叹句用法很简单, How 和 What 放句前, How 与形、 副词类连, What 后面名词添.主语谓语不用变,省掉它 们也常见. 当然，what 感叹句和 how 感叹句有时可以互相转换。当 What 修饰单数可数名词时，如果这一名 词有形容词修饰，也可用 how 引导感叹句，但不定冠词 a 或 an 需放在形容词之后。如：What a large factory = How large a factory it is! 祈使句: 祈使句所需注意的是：含有第二人称的祈使句的否定句用 don't.含有第一、第三人称的祈使句的 否定句用 Let+not+动词原形或 Don't let+第三人称代词的宾格或名词。 下面稍微提一下常考的强调句：我们学过的强调句是 it 引导的句子。记住：强调句的连词只有两个，that 和 who。当强调的部分是人，且为句子的主语时，才用 "who"，其余用"that". 句式是：It is (was) 被强调部 分+that(who) + 句子其他部分。此结构强调的成分仅限于主语，宾语和状语。判断一个句子是否是强调句， 只需看去掉 It be… that 是否还是一个完整的句子。 看下面例题： It is twenty years ___ Miss Feng returned to China. A. that B. when C. since D. as 答案 C.本题易误选为 A(that). 其实本句不是强调句。若是，去掉 It be… that 还应是一个完整的句子。而 本句去掉 "It is...that"，只剩下 ten years Miss Feng returned to China.不成句。因此本句不是强调句。 句子的种类你掌握的如何?何不试试趁热打铁? 练习： 1. It was yesterday _______ Xiao Ming finished all his homework. A. that B. when C. where D. at 2. You are not in Grade Two, ________you? A. aren't B. are C. do D. don't 3. She has never read the book before, _______? A. has she B. hasn't she C. is she D. isn't she 4. --I want to shopping this afternoon. What about you? ___________. A. So did I
B. So I did C. So I do D. So do I 5. It's time for supper now. Let's ______ it. A. stop to have it B. stop having C. to stop to have D. stopping to have 6. _______ lovely she smiles ! A. How B. How a C. What D. What a 7. Thank you for _____ me with my English. A. help B. helped C. helping D. helps 8. --Would you please _______ the shoes on the floor? --I'm sorry. I won't do it again. A. not throw B. don't throw C. not to throw D. didn't throw 9. Lily has not visited many places of great interests in China. ________. A. So has her twin sister B. Neither is her twin sister C. So her twin sister D. Neither has her twin sister 10. Don't _______ books again! You must be careful _______ now on. A. lost, from B. lose, from C. lost, since D. lose, since 实践： 1. When I entered the room, I saw the little boy _______ in the corner. A. to stand B. stands C. stood D. standing 2. It is a great shame for me _______ in front of so many people. A. to laugh at B. to laughing at C. to be laughed at D. to have laughed at
3. He dares to climb that tall tree, ________ he? A. doesn't B. daren't C. hasn't D. isn't 4. Please ______ anything you can remember about the accident. A. fill in B. draw out C. write in D. put down 5. -Will the clouds lift in the afternoon? --_______. A. I hope so B. I hope it C. I hope that D. I hope such 6. We had to stay at home ______ the heavy rain. A. as B. since C. because of D. because 7. They will visit our school ______ next week. A. sometimes B. some time C. some times D. sometimes 8. Although he tried hard, he was ______ maths. A. good at B. doing well in C. weak in D. interested in 9. The stars ______ in the daytime. A. can't see B. can't be seen C. can be seen D. see 10.This kind of cars _______ in Shanghai. A. is made B. are made C. are making D. is making 11.Mr Black's just come back from the England, _______ he? A. isn't B. doesn't C. hasn't D. is 12._______ ten years since I left my hometown.
A. They B. It is C. There have been D. It was 13.Is this ________ looking for? A. you were B. that you were C. what were you D. what you were 14.The Blacks _______ go to the seaside to have their holidays, but now they no longer go there. A. were used to B. used to C. usually D. seldom 15.Don't hurry. Only one person can enter the room________. A. at a time B. in no time C. in time D. on time
第 14 讲：宾语从句
一个句子如果加上宾语从句，句子显然变复杂了，也变的 difficult 了，其实，你大可不必发愁。只要掌 握好宾语从句的用法，一切问题就迎刃而解了。 宾语从句由关系代词或关系副词引出。我们根据引导宾语从句的连词不同，可把宾语从句分为三类。 以 that 引导的宾语从句。 如：I hear that you have passed the examination. Good luck! 以 if 和 whether 引导的宾语从句。 如：I don't know if you can come tomorrow. 以连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。 如：Please tell me how you can get here. 运用宾语从句要注意以下几点： 宾语从句的语序一定是陈述句语序。 主句的谓语动词的时态如果是过去时态，宾语从句谓语动词的时态要选用相应的过去某一种形式。 如果宾语从句表示的是客观真理，事实时，即使主句是过去式，从句仍用一般现在时。 练习： 1. She asked me if I knew _______. A. whose pen is it B. whose pen it was C. whose pen it is D. whose pen was it 2. I don't know _______ he still lives here after so many years. A. whether B. where C. what D. when 3. I don't know ______ he will come tomorrow. _______ he comes, I'll tell you. A. if, whether B. whether, whether C. if, That
D. if, If 4. The small children don't know ________. A. what is their stockings in B. where is in their stockings C. where is their stocking in D. what in their stockings 5. Can you tell me ________? A. when does the ship leave B. when the ship will leave C. when the ship leave D. when will the ship leave 6. Can you tell me ______? A. when did he come B. when he came C. when did he came D. he came when 7. Can you tell me ______ the radio ? A. how did he mend B. what did he mend C. how he mended D. what he mended 8. He asked his father _________. A. where it happens B. where did it happen C. how it happened D. how did it happen 9. I didn't know what colour_________. A. is the bag B.the bag is C. was the bag D. the bag was 10. Could you tell me ______ with the money? A. how to do B. what should I do C. how should I do D. what I should do
实践： 1.We are _____ going to the factory and work there. A. briefly B. lately C. recently D. shortly 2.For most students, their teacher's advice is more important than ______ of their parents. A. one
B. what C. which D. that 3.They talked in a low voice ______ be heard by others. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. so as to 4.Not until this evening ______ that the meeting had been put off. A. I did know B. did I know C. I knew D. I have known 5.We are looking forward to seeing you again,and we'll be very disappointed if you ______. A. didn't come B. haven't come C. won't come D.don't come 6.If I _______ there earlier, I ________ him. A. had arrived ,would have met B. have arrived, would have C. arrived, have met D. arrived, had met 7.Lily is said ______ for London last month. A. to have left B. to leave C. to be leaving D. to be left 8.Life on earth ______ impossible unless we stop destroying the forest and poisoning the oceans. A. was B. has been C. will have been D. will be 9.The twins will go fishing with us this weekend _______ they are free. A. though B. if C. whether D. but 10. --______ we go at 8:00? --What about _______ it a little earlier? A. Shall, making B. Shall, to make C. Will, making D. Will, make 11.New York is bigger than ______ in the United States. A. any other city B. any cities
C. any city D. other cities 12.Her mother ______ for more than three years. A. has died B. had died C. is dead D. has been dead 13.All the guests _______ got to the classroom on time. A. invited B. being invited C. inviting D. to be invited 14.At twelve that night we arrived in the village _______ we once lived. A. what B. which C. where D. that 15.He ran from house to house, ______ people the good news. A. told B. telling C. tell D. to tell
第 15 讲：状语从句
状语从句是句子的状语由一个从句充当，来修饰主句中的动词，形容词或副词等。状语从句都由从属连 词引导，与主句连接，放在句末时，一般不在前面加逗号。 状语从句根据它表示的意思可分为时间，原因，条件，比较，结果，目的等类。下面我们拣重点的一个 一个来分析。 时间状语从句：是由 when, as, while, after, before, since, until, as soon as 等从属连词引导的状语从句。时 间状语从句中的谓语动词不能用一般将来时， 只能用一般现在时表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。如:I will call you as soon as I arrive there. 原因状语从句： because, since, as 和 for 都表示原因。常常令我们不知该用哪个好。我们来比较一下。 because 语势最强，回答 why 提出的问题，用来说明人所不知的原因。当能够很明显的看出原因或人们已知 原因，就用 as 或 since。如：I don't like that coat,because the color looks terrible. 由 because 引导的从句如果放 在句末，且前面有逗号，则可以用 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因，而是多种情况加以推断，就只能 用 for。如：He is not here, because / for his mother is ill. 目的状语从句：表示目的状语的从句可以由 in order that, so that,等词引导。如：You must raise your voice so that/in order that everybody can hear you clearly. 结果状语从句：结果状语从句常由 so...that 或 such...that 引导，要掌握和区分这两个句型，首先要了解 so 和 such 后面分别跟什么词。 such 是形容词， 修饰名词或名词词组， 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 还 so so 可与表示数量的形容词 many, few, much, little 连用，形成固定搭配。如：The box is so heavy that I can't carry it. 让步状语从句：是由 though, although 引导的状语从句。though, although 和 but 不能同时使用。 Although it rained, they had a good time.
练习： 1. She will find him a kind man when she _________him. A. knows B. know C. will know D. is going to know 2. We'll go out for a walk as soon as it ________. A. stops raining B. raining C. stop to rain D. rain 3. The film was _____ interesting _____ everyone wanted to see it again. A. too, to B. so, that C. not ,until D. very, that 4. We don't understand the passage ______ there is few words in it. A. and B. if C. though D. because 5. You are sure to pass the exam _______ you study hard. A. if B. though C. that D. when 6. If you _____ free tomorrow, we won't go for a picnic. A. aren't B. won't be C. weren't D. don't 7. What was Jim doing _______ the teacher came in? A. while B. and C. when D. but 8. You must stop ______ the policeman say: "stop!" A. that B. if C. then D. until 9. --The boy failed to pass the English examination. --______ he didn't work hard. A. If B. Because C. When
D. So 10. I'll go for a walk with you if it ______ tomorrow? A. won't rain B. doesn't rain C. will rain D. rain
实践： 1. I get up ______ half past six every day. A. in B. on C. at D. for 2. I heard Robin ________ an English song last night. A. sang B. to sing C. sing D. sung 3. Is there _______ in today's newspaper? A. important something B. something important C. important anything D. anything important 4. _____ fine weather it is! A. What a B. What an C. How D. What 5. "Where are your bikes?" "________ is under tree, and _______ beside the wall." A. Mine, her B. Me, his C. Mine, his D. His, her 6. ______ students listened to the report. A. Four hundred B. Four hundred of C. Four hundreds of D. Four hundreds 7. Football was once a ______ game, but now more and more girls enjoy playing it. A. boys' B. boy's C. boys's D. girl's 8. Don't move, _______ I will kill you!
A. and B. or C. so D. but 9. There is _________ ink in my pen. Will you please give me _______ drops? A. a few, a little B. few , little C. little, a few D. little, a little 10.They could hardly believe it, _______? A. couldn't they B. could they C. can't they D. can they 11."May I smoke here ?" "No, you _______." A. can't B. needn't C. mustn't D. may not 12.His father ________ for six years. A. has died B. has been dead C. has dead D. has been death 13.There is ________ umbrella in the room. _______ umbrella is in the corner. A. the, the B. a, The C. an, The D. an, A 14.It was ______ the Christmas Eve that I first saw him. A. at B. in C. on D. by 15.She has an pencil in one hand, a pen in ________. A. others B. another C. the other D. the others
第 16 讲：考前指导
中考在一天天的接近，现在大家肯定非常紧张。面对这一大堆问题，该如何充分利用这几天 有限的 时间来达到复习的最佳效果呢?不要着急，不要着急，稳下心来, Do it step by step,中考就会志在必得。 考前主要思路：目前中考英语的趋向是向考察语言实际应用的方向转化，对语法的考察则趋 向于基 本、基础的知识考察。同时将对语法的考察与语言情景向结合。所以：记住该记的关键、废话少说！考什么
记什么。时间宝贵呀！一谈到考前复习，很多人便想到抓 "考点"、"要点"。实际上，最关键的是抓住"知识 点"，找出"重点"和"难点"，才能举一反三，触类旁通。 忠告： 音标部分：在平时学习时所掌握的知识的基础上，复习一遍音标规则，复习过程中结合自己所学单词进 行验证，可加深印象和理解程度。同时总结容易混淆的音标及不符合音标规则的特殊读音词。 介词的用法一直是考试的重点，原因是在英语里，介词往往能起到汉语里动词的作用，而且很多时候用 法的区分很细致。复习时认真总结一下，还是有用的。 因汉语里没有冠词一说，冠词的用法一直是个难点。a,an 用法还好区分些，只要知道其后面所跟的词的 发音就可轻易判断。the 则难一些，但只要知道用 the 则必特指，大多数题也就迎刃而解了。当然还有不用 冠词的时候。 句中单复数的对应关系，其中包括名词、代词的单复数形式，并不是很难理解，考试时细心一些就可以 了。肯定句、疑问句的相互变换时，更要特别注意到这一点。 动词词组的含义、用法，要是没有掌握得很好，则针对每一词组的不同用法记忆一组例句，到时候套用 可保万无一失。 初二、初三的英语中有了时态、句中词序的变化，复习时多加对比，考时跟着感觉走。 初中英语的阅读理解部分，并不涉及词语的隐讳含义或双关等。因此只要阅读速度不是很慢，平时所积 累的词汇量够用就行。万一你的速度赶不上去，考试可先读题，后读文章，读时抓住与问题相关的内容点就 行。 练习： 1. "Would you mind lending me your radio?" "______". A. Yes, here you are. B. Certainly not. Here you are. C. No, my radio is bad D. No, thanks. 2. If you don't know how to read a word, you'd better ______ in a dictionary. A. look up it B. to look up it C. look it up D. to look it up 3. There _____ a lot of rice in the bag. A. are B. has C. have D. is 4.The radio is too noisy, would you please _______ a little? A. turn it down B. turn it on C. stop it from D. pick it up 5. Beijing will _______ beautiful flowers when National Day comes. A. cover B. cover with C. be covered D. be covered with
6. John knows _______ a computer. A. how to use B. how use C. how uses D. what use 7. The English for 10,440 is ________. A. ten thousand, four hundreds and forty B. ten thousand, four hundred and forty C. ten thousand, four hundred forty D. ten thousand and four, forty 8. I saw _______ playing in the street at that time. A. them B. they C. their D. theirs 9. There is _________ in the world if you put your heart into it. A. something difficult B. difficult something C. nothing difficult D. difficult nothing 10. ______ all the students in his class, Xiao Ming writes_______. A. Of, most carefully B. In, the most careful C. Of, very carefully D. In, much more carefully 实践： 1. I have four friends. Both Tom and Peter ________ from the USA, but neither Tom nor Peter ________western food. A. is, likes B. are,likes C. is, like D. are, like 2. The Nile is the longest river in the world. It is _______ kilometres long. A. six thousands six hundred and seventy B. six thousand and six hundred seventy C. six thousands six hundreds seventy D. six thousand six hundred and seventy 3. ________ my aunt comes to stay with us for _______ in our home town. A. Sometime, sometimes B. Sometimes, sometime C. Some time, sometimes D. Sometime,sometime 4. Uncle Wang wanted me to water the trees.________. A. So did us B. So we did
C. So was I D. So I did 5. Nobody can go into the cinema _______ a ticket. A. with B. except C. and D. without 6. ________ is the most popular football player in your country? A. Who do you think B. Do you think who C. Do you think whom D. Whom do you think 7. _______ hard and you will catch up with your classmates. A. To work B. Work C. If you work D. Working 8. The dress cost ________ money that she couldn't afford to buy it. A. too much B. so much C. so many D. quite much 9. A: You are very beautiful in the new skirt. B: _______. A. It's too good B. I'm sorry to hear that C. That's great D. It's quite good 10. Such a thing will not be found everywhere. That means________. A. such a thing is nowhere to be found B. such a thing can be found somewhere , but not everywhere C. you can never find such a thing D. such a thing can not be found in any places 11. _____ is clear that learning English well is not easy. A. This B. What C. It D. That 12. He said ________ he was a teacher ________ he taught English. A. whether, that B. that, that and C. \ , and that D. whether, but that 13. We should open our mouth _____ learn English well. A. for order to B. in order to
C. in order that D. in order for 14. It's a great shame for me _______ in front of so many people. A. to laugh at B. to laughing at C. to be laughed at D. to have laughed at 15. The boys ______ basketball on the playground are my classmates. A. play B. played C. to play D. playing 第 18 讲：模拟考场 单项选择 I. 选出划线部分读音相异的词 1. A. mind B. dinner C. bridge D. happily 2. A. lot B. strong C. doctor D. front 3. A. park B. start C. large D. quarter 4. A. born B. short C. world D. north 5. A. foot B. moon C. cook D. stood 6. A. south B. thin C. eighth D. either II. 选择填空 7. Lin Tao is_______ Class 2, Grade 3. A. of B. on C. in D. at 8. My sister________ her homework every evening. A. do B. did C. does D. doing 9. Cars and buses_______ stop when the traffic lights turn red. A. can B. must C. may D. need 10. ---I'm sorry to trouble you, Miss Gao. ---______. A. The same to you. B. Fine, thanks. C. That's all right D. It doesn't matter 11. You may call Robert Thomas Brown . A. Mr. Robert B. Mr. Thomas C. Mr. Brown. D. Mr. Robert Thomas 12. The new evening dress_______her 300 yuan. A. spent B. took C. pay D. cost 13. Jim ______ at this school ____two years ago. A. has been ...for B. has been ...since C. have been ...since D. have been ...for 14. Please ____the radio. It's too loud. A.turn off turn on C. turn down D. turn up 15. Mr. Black couldn't buy___many things. A. he B. his C. himself D. himselves 16. Could you tell me___the computer? A. how to use B. to how use C. how use D. how use to 17. You'd better ___late for the meeting. A. not to B. not be C. not to be D. not 18. Bruce studies ___Dick.
A.so hard as B. as harder as C. as hard as D. as hardy as 19. My parents ___teachers of maths. A. all are B. are all C. both are D. are both 20. ----Could I speak to Mr. Smith, please? ----___. He's gone to the post office. A. I think so B. Certainly you can C. I'm afraid not D. I'm not sure 21. The shop is ____on weekdays. But it's ____ on weekends (周末). A. to open...closed B. opens...closed C. open...closed D. opened...close 22. My brother asked me ___kite___. A. who...this was B. whose...this was C. whose...was this D. who...was this 23. ---___do you write to your mother? --Once a month. A. How soon B. How long C. How often D. What time 24. Who's going to ___care of the garden while you are away? A. have B. give C. take D. look 25. There are two Chinese classes on Friday, ___? A. is there B. aren't there C. are there D. isn't there 26. ---Would you like a cup of tea? ---_______. A. Not at all. B.No, I wouldn't C. No, thanks D. Yes, I like it 27. Do you enjoy ____popular music? A.to listen to B. listening to C. to hear D. hearing 28. Before you decide to buy a new coat, you may ___. A.try it in B.try in it C. try on it D. try it on 29. People plant trees to stop the sand __towards the rich farmland. A. to move B.to moving C. from move D. from moving 30. This jacket ___cotton. A. makes of B. are make in C. is made of D. made in 31. The work was ___difficult ___it took us quite a long time to do it. A. such...that B. so...that C. too...that D.too...to 完型填空 At the entrance to a big office in London there was a book. All workers had to write(1) when they (2) each morning. At nine o'clock, the manager(经理）had to draw a red line (线）(3) the last name in the book, and anyone who came after that had to write why he was (4). When there was a thick (5) in the city, the first person to arrive late usually(6) "Delayed (耽搁）by fog" under the red line in the book, and then everybody(7) who came after thet just wrote"The same". But one foggy morning, the (8) man to arrive late wrote "My wife had a baby early this morning " instead of (代替）"Delayed by fog" under the red line in the book.Twenty (9) thirty people who came after wrote "(10)" as usual. 1. A. numbers B. times C. names D. excuses 2. A. arrived B. left C. got up D. met 3. A. on B. beside C. above D. under 4. A. out B. late C. away D. sorry 5. A. rain B. fog C. snow D. traffic 6. A. found B. understood C. said D. wrote 7. A. else B. only C. or D. here
8. A. last B. first C. old D. young 9. A. with B. of C. or D.but 10. A. No B. Yes C. OK D. The same Passage 1 When Martin was a little boy, he lived in the little town---Holthan. At that time, he thought the town was very big. Well, Martin came back to the town last night, "It's a small town!" he thought. The town has changed very little in the past forty years. But Martin has changed a lot. He has grown into a man.His thought (思维) are man's thoughts.He sees things through a man's eyes.Martin stayed in the town for five hours.He walked from street to street, but he knew nobody. Was Holthan, then, a town of strangers (陌生人)? No. He suddenly understood it all. Only he was a stranger of the town. 根据短文内容，选择正确答案 1. Holthan was ___. A. a small village B. a small town C. a big country D. a big town 2. Martin left the town ___. A. when he was forty B. four years ago C. when he was thirty D. forty years ago 3. Now Martin sees things through ___eyes. A. a man's B. a boy' C. a child's D. a stranger's 4. Martin ___during his five hours stay in the town. A. saw nobody B. saw a lot of things C. met no friends D. didn't want to see his friends 5. Which of the following is true? A. Martin stayed in the town or two hours. B. Martin was not a stranger in the town. C. The town has changed a lot. D. A man's thoughts and a child's thoughts are different. Passage 2 Many places in the world need more fresh(淡的)water. Every country is trying to find ways to turn salt water into fresh. Why aren't there many factorres like the Symi factory? In some places, the sunis not hot enough. Or it does not shine every day. In such places, other ways of heating (加热)﹕seawater can be used.These ways cost more money,but tehy work faster then the sun.By boiling (煮沸);sea water with high heat, a lot of fresh watercan be made quickly. But heating is not the only way toget fresh water from salt water. other ways are tried. One way is freezing (冷冻).The fresh part ofsalt water freezes first.To get fresh water, the bits of ice are taken out. Which way is best?
The onethat gives the nost water for the least money. It may be a different way for each place. Symi's way seems very good for small, hot places. It does not make very much water at a time. But the factory is easy to build and costs little.That is why people in many dry places talk about Symi! 1. From this passage(短文)we know that fresh water_______. A. is needed in every country B. can be found in many factories C. can be used in many ways D. is very important for factories 2. What is the writer mainly (主要的) talking about in the passage? A. Water-making factories in different countries B. The ways of making fresh water from sea water C. Hot places and dry places D. How to make good use of the sun 3. The Symi factory_______. A. seems good but too small B. is a fresh water-making factory C. can make much fresh water at a time D. does not need sunshine every day 4. Which is the best way for small and hot places to get fresh water? A. Boiling or heating the sea water B. The way in hotter and drier places C. The Symi's way D. Freezing the sea water in cold places. 5. Which of the following is not true? A. New ways are tried to get fresh water. B. A lot of fresh water can be made quickly by heating. C. The best way is to get more fresh water with the least money. D. The Symi's way does not work in dry places.
第 17 讲
There be 句型与中考试题
There be 句型的基本用法是表示“某地 （或某时） 有某人 （或某物） 其形式为“Therebe＋代词或名词 ”， （短 语）＋地点／时间状语”。这里 there 是引导词，没有词义，be 是谓语动词，代词或名词（短语）是主语。be 要与主语保持人称和数的一致。否定句是在 be 后加 not；一般疑问句是将 be 放在句首；反意疑问句中的简短 问句是由“be（或其否定式）＋there”构成。例如： 1．There is a desk and two chairs in the room． （紧挨着 be 动词的主语是 a desk，是单数，故 be 的形式要用 is） 2．There aren't two chairs and a desk in the room． （否定句） 3．Is there anything wrong with your ears？（Yes，there is．／No，there isn't． ） 4．There wasn't a meeting yesterday，was there？（反意疑问句） 除此之外， 还有一个重要句式“有某人在做某事”， 要用“There be ＋sb． ＋doing sth． ＋地点／时间状语”。 例如： There are several children swimming in the river．河里有几个孩子在游泳。 There be 结构中常见的时态有如下几种情况： 通过上表可知：各种时态的变化是通过 be 动词的变化来体现的。至于你提到的两个句子我们先不考虑 对错，首要的问题是弄清楚 There be 与 have 所表示的意义。There be 句型表示“存在”关系，have 表示“所属” 关系，两者不能混合在一个句子中。例如，要说“明天有一个班会。”（1）There will have a class meeting
tomorrow． （×） （2）There is going to／will be a class meeting tomorrow． （√）有时候既表示“存在”又表示“所 属”时两种都可以用。 例如： Class Three have a map of China on the wall． “地图”为三班学生所有） （ There is a map of China on the wall in Class Three． （“地图”存在于三班）由此看来，There will have 是错误的。 复习 There be 句型时除了掌握基础知识外，还应注意以下问题： 1．There be 句型的考查更多的是将 be 动词与主语结合在一起进行的，即主谓的一致性。例如： （1）There is _____ on the floor． （2）There are _____ on the floor． 选项：A．cat B．water C．boxes D．football 解析： （1）由 is 可知主语应是可数名词单数或不可数名词，而 A、D 项中都缺少冠词 a，故选 B，同理可知（2）应选 C。 2．如果作主语的是一个短语，则常常考查短语中的修饰语。可数名词的复数形式前可以用 any，som e，few， a few，m any 或用数词 ＋hundred／thousand／million，hundreds／ thousands／millions of，no 等修饰；不可 数名词可以受 any，some，no，little，a little，much 等词的修饰。例如： （1）There were _____ students in our school． A．hundreds B．eight hundred C．eight hundreds of （2）There is _____ water．You needn't get some more． A．few B．little C．much 解析： （1）由数词与名词的搭配关系可知选 B， （2）由 water 可知排除 A 项，再由后一句意思便知选 C。 3．注意不定代词的用法。 （1）不定代词在句中作主语，谓语动词要用单数形式。例如：There is nothing in the fridge． （2）不定代词受 形容词修饰时要放在形容词的前面。例如：There is something interesting in today's newspaper． 4．There be 句型的反意疑问句，要注意陈述部分的形式。 如果陈述部分含有 little，few，no，nobody，none 等否定词时，后面的简短问句中要用肯定形式。例如： There is nobody in the room，is there？ 但有的含有否定意义的形容词修饰不定代词时则仍看作肯定句式。 例如： There is something unusual in the room，isn't there？ 5．要注意句子前后意思的一致性。 有的句子单独看其意义时，可能不止一个选项适合于它，但如果联系上下句的意思则只能有一个恰当的 选项。 例如：1） （ There is _____ food． needn't buy any．2）There is _____ food． have to buy some．A． You （ You （ any B．some C．no）从这两题中的第一个句子来看均可选用 some 和 no，但与后面的句意结合看，答案则是唯 一的： （1）B， （2）C。 There be 句型命题趋向有两个方面：一是进一步加强对知识的理解与运用方面的考查。例如 be 动词与主 语的一致性、 名词或代词的修饰语、 搭配关系、 含否定词的反意疑问句等。 二是有可能出现“有某人在做某事” 这一句型，即“There be ＋sb．＋doing sth．＋地点／时间状语”。 下面是一些英语中考试题原题: 1．There are _____ days in a week． A．the seven B．seventh C．the seventh D．seven 2．There are few _____ in the fridge．Let's go and buy som e peas，carrots and cabbages． A．vegetables B．fruit C．meat D．eggs 3．Look！There are some _____ on the floor． A．child B．water C．boxes D．girl 4．There were two _____ people at yesterday's meeting． A．hundreds B．hundreds of C．hundred 5．The letter from my uncle was short．There wasn't _____ news． A．many B．a few C．much D．few 6．—Oh，there isn't enough _____ for us in the lift． —It doesn't matter，let's wait for the next．
A．ground B．floor C．place D．room 7．There _____ an English Evening next Tuesday． A．was B．will be C．will have D．are going to be 8．There _____ a football gam e in our school． A．has B．will have C．will be 9．There is going to _____ a report _____ Chinese history in our school this evening． A．have；on B．be；on C．have；for D．be；of 10．There is _____ food here．We'll have to buy some． A．any B．some C．no 11．There is _____ in the bag．It's em pty． A．nothing B．something C．anything D．somebody 12．There is _____ knocking at the door．Go and see who it is． A．nobody B．somebody C．anybody D．everybody 13．—Is there _____ wrong with me， doctor？ —I'm afraid so．Your heart is beating a bit too slow． A．something B．anything C．everything D．nothing 14．There is _____ interesting on this channel．Try others． A．nothing B．none C．anything D．no 15．There is _____ interesting in the film，so _____ is interested in it． A．something；nobody B．nothing；somebody C．anything；anybody D．nothing；nobody 16．There is _____ in today's newspaper． A．nothing new B．anything new C．new anything D．new something 17．There is _____ in today's newspaper． A．new anything B．new something C．anything new D．something new 18．There will be a volleyball match in our school， _____ ？ A．be there B．is there C．will there D．won't there 19．There is little water in the bottle． （改为反意疑问句） There is little water in the bottle， _____ _____ ？ 20．There is som ething unusual on the island． （改为反意疑问句） There is som ething unusual on the island， _____ _____ ？ Key: ●There be 句型与中考试题 1—5 D A C C C 6—10 D B C B C 11—15 A B B A D 16—18 A D D 19．is there 20．isn't there
第 18 讲
被动语态的结构为“助动词 be＋及物动词的过去分词（p．p）”。被动语态的不同时态是通过 be 的时态变化 来表示的，其人称和数方面应与主语保持一致。其具体变化为： 一般现在时：am／is／are＋p．p． 一般过去时：was／were＋p．p． 一般将来时：shall ／will be ＋p．p． 现在完成时：have ／has been ＋p．p． 现在进行时：am／is／are＋being＋p．p． 过去将来时：should ／would be ＋p．p． 含情态动词的被动结构：情态动词＋be＋p．p．例如： ① Chinese ______ by the largest number of people． A．speak B．is speaking C．speaks D．is spoken （选 D。考查一般现在时的被动语态） ② The boy ______ to get supper ready after school． A．were told B．is telling C．was told D．tells （选 C。考查一般过去时的被动语态） ③ A lot of new roads ______ built in the west of China． A．must B．must be C．has D．have （选 B。考查含情态动词的被动语态） B．明确用法 被动语态常用于以下两种情况： 1．不知道谁是动作的执行者，或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者； 2．强调动作的承受者。例如： 这棵树是那个男孩弄断的。 The tree ______ ______ by that boy． （填 was broken） C．熟练转换 1．将主动语态变被动语态的基本方法为： ①将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语； ②谓语动词变为“be＋及物动词的过去分词”，并通过 be 的变化来表达出不同的时态； ③主动语态的主语变为介词 by 的宾语，组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。 （有时 by 短语可以 省略） 。 2．被动语态的一般疑问句是将一个助动词置于主语之前；否定句是在第一个助动词后加 not；特殊疑问句的 语序为：疑问词＋一般疑问句。例如： ① You must throw the broken pottery away at once． The broken pottery ______ ______ ______ ______ at once． （同义句） （填 m ust be thrown away） ② Where did they grow vegetables？（改为被动语态）
Where ______ vegetables ______ ？（填 were；grown） D．注意特例 将主动语态变被动语态应注意几个特殊情况： 1．含双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时，有两种方法： ①将间接宾语变为主语，直接宾语保持不变； ②将直接宾语变为主语，间接宾语用介词 to 或 for 引导。例如： ① He told us a story． （变被动语态） →We were told a story（by him） ．或：A story was told to us by him． ② Her mother gave her a new pen． （变被动语态） A new pen ______ ______ ______ her by her mother． （填 was given to） 2．短语动词的被动语态：在变为被动语态时，要将短语动词视为一个整体，其后的介词或副词不能省去。 例如： ① This dictionary mustn't ______ from the library． A．take away B．taken away C．are taken away D．be taken away ［D］ ② She will take good care of the children． （变被动语态） The children will ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ （by her） ． （填 be taken good care of） 3．含有复合宾语的主动结构变被动结构时，通常将宾语变为被动句的主语，而宾语补足语就成为主语补足 语。注意：省略 to 的不定式作宾补时，不定式符号 to 必须补上。例如： Someone saw him swim in Qianling Lake yesterday． （变被动语态） He ______ ______ ______ swim in Qianling Lake yesterday． （填 was seen to） 4．不定式的被动结构：动词不定式的被动语态为“to be ＋过去分词”。例如： The radio says a wild animal zoo is to ______ in our city． A．be building B．build C．be built D．built ［C］ 5．以疑问代词开头的疑问句转换成被动句时要注意词序：应将主动句中的疑问代词改为介词 by 的宾语，但 仍然放在句子开头。例如： Who has broken the cup？（改为被动语态） →By whom has the cup been broken？ E．注意区别 被动语态和过去分词作表语的区别： 1）含义不同：被动语态强调动作，重点说明动作由谁完成、怎样完成；而过去分词作表语通常用来描写情 景，叙述人或事物的特征及所处的状态。试比较： The window is broken．窗子破了。 （系表结构） The window is broken by him．窗子被他打破了。 （被动语态） 2）用法不同：过去分词作表语时可以被 so，very，too 等程度副词修饰，而被动语态则不能用 so，very，too 修饰，而需用 much，very much，so much，too much 修饰。试比较：
He was very interested in science．他对科学有极大兴趣。 （系表结构） I was so much surprised at the scene that I didn't know what to do．我被那种场面搞得大吃一惊，不知所措。 （被 动语态） F．牢记（相关）句型 初中教材中与被动语态相关的句型有： 1．be covered with 被……覆盖 2．be made of 由……制作（发生物理变化） be made from 由……制作（发生化学变化） be made in 由（某地）制造 be made by 被（某人）制造 3．be used for 被用来…… be used as 被当作（作为）……来使用 be used to do sth．被用来做某事 4．It is said that．．据说…… ． It is hoped that．．希望…… ． It is well known that．．众所周知……例如： ． ①—Your coat looks nice．Is it ______ cotton？ —Yes．It's Shanghai． A．made of；made by B．made of；made in C．made for；made by D．made for；made in ［B］ ② This machine is used ______ the room wet． A．for keeping B．as keeping C．keep D．to keeping ［A］ ③ 据说在南京长江上又在建一座桥。 ______ ______ ______ that ______ ______ is being ______ over the Changjiang River in Nanjing． （填 It is said；another bridge；built）